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\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li134\ri1004\sl297\slmult1\sb83\f4\fs12\b0\i1\charscalex120\cf2 Keywords: \f5\i0 Guardianship Legislation Adult\expnd2\expndtw12 \expnd0\expndtw0 protection\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li134\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb75\expnd5\expndtw26\charscalex130 \column \f9\fs18\b0\cf2 a\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd5\expndtw26 b\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd5\expndtw26 s\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd5\expndtw26 t\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd5\expndtw26 r\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd5\expndtw26 a\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd5\expndtw26 c\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 t\charscalex100 \expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb11\f9\fs13\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li132\sl-20\f9\fs2
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\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li134\ri139\qj\sl285\slmult1\sb35\f5\fs14\b0\charscalex120\cf2 The\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 criteria\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 appointment\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 powers\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 will\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 given\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 depend\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 upon\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 how \f5 a\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 particular\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 political\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 entity\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 balances\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 respect\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 individual's\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 right\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 autonomy\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 one\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 hand,\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 against \f5 society's desire to protect those who cannot manage their own affairs, on the other. In recent decades, the balance\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 tipped\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 concern\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 about\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 protection\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 concern\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 about\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 autonomy.\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 This\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 shift,\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 turn,\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 resulted \f5 in\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 an\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 evolution\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 linguistic\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 style\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 laws\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 enacted.\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 This\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 article\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 examines\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 many\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 different\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardianship \f5 statutes\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 around\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 United\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 States,\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 demonstrating\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 subtle\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 linguistic\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 maneuvers\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 style\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 drafting \f5 affects\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 degree\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 discretion\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 given\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 decision\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 makers.\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 Using\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 advances\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 psychology\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 concepts\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 and \f5 categories, the article demonstrates the descriptive inadequacy of the classical distinction of rules versus standards\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislative\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 drafting,\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 adds\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 prototype-based\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 laws\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 laws\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 dependent\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 upon\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 enriched\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 mental \f5 models\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 types\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 laws\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislators\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 employ.\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 The\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 goal\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 article\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 build\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 self-conscious\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 awareness \f5 of the tools available to policy-makers in their efforts to hone legislation in this important area of mental health\expnd1\expndtw5 \expnd0\expndtw0 law.\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols1\colno1\colw10670\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\ri149\qr\sl240\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs14\b0\charscalex110\cf2 \'A9 2012 Elsevier Ltd. 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\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs20\b0\i0\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw5158\colsr202\colno2\colw5310\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls2\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li313\fi-179\sl240\slmult1\tx314{\*\bkmkstart 1. Introduction}{\*\bkmkend 1. Introduction}{\*\bkmkstart 1. Introduction}{\*\bkmkend 1. Introduction}\f3\fs16\b0\charscalex125\cf2 Introduction\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f3\fs20\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li134\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex115\cf2 Guardianship\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 laws\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 are\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 everywhere,\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 but\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 they\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 are\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 uniform.\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 Why \f5 not? The criteria for appointment of a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardian, \expnd0\expndtw0 and the powers that \f5 the\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 will\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 given\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 depend\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 upon\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 how\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 particular\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 political\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 entity \f5 balances\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 respect\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 individual's\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 right\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 autonomy\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 one\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 hand, \f5 against\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 society's\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 desire\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 protect\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 those\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 who\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 cannot\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 manage\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 their\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 own \f5 affairs, on the other. In recent decades, the balance has tipped from \expnd-1\expndtw-3 concern \expnd0\expndtw0 about protection to \expnd-1\expndtw-3 concern \expnd0\expndtw0 about \expnd-1\expndtw-3 autonomy. \expnd0\expndtw0 This shift, in \f5 turn,\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 resulted\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 an\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 evolution\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 style\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 laws\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 drafted.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li134\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 One way of ensuring that guardians are not appointed except for those individuals who are seriously incapacitated, is to write laws that set down speci\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 c criteria for the appointment and empowering of\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardians.\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 Thus,\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 we\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 have\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 seen\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 shift\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 standards,\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 based\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 largely \f5 on an individual's diagnostic status, to detailed rules based on how well the individual is able to function in his or her own. This shift\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 in \f5 legislative style has been observed in the scholarly literature ({\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 Kapp,}}
\cf3 \f5{\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt 1998}}
\cf2 ).\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 However,\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 by\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 limiting\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 discussion\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 rules\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 versus\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 standards, \f5 the literature has missed some important nuances in the various techniques that legislatures use to regulate the discretion that\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 resides \f5 in\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 decision\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 makers,\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 generally\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 judges,\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 consequently,\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 failed\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 to \f5 take\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 notice\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 several\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 important\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 devices\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 available\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 balance\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 exibility \expnd0\expndtw0 and the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 protection \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 rights.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li134\fi239\ri1\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb1{\*\bkmkstart 2. The tension in adult guardianship legislation}{\*\bkmkend 2. The tension in adult guardianship legislation}\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Using examples from various state guardianship statutes in the United States, this article introduces two additional devices that \expnd-1\expndtw-3 legislatures \expnd0\expndtw0 use to \expnd-1\expndtw-3 control \expnd0\expndtw0 judicial discretion: \expnd0\expndtw-2 prototype \expnd0\expndtw0 rules,\expnd9\expndtw45 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs20\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li132\sl-20\f5\fs2
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\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li218\sl240\slmult1\sb15{\*\bkmkstart bookmark0}{\*\bkmkend bookmark0}\f8\fs12\b0\charscalex125\cf2 \uc1\u8270 ? \f5 Tel.: \expnd1\expndtw3\charscalex130 +1 \expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex125 718 780\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 0357.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li373\sl240\slmult1\sb29\f4\fs12\b0\i1\charscalex115\cf2 E-mail address:\expnd4\expndtw20 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK "mailto:larry.solan@brooklaw.edu" }}{\fldrslt\f5\i0\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 larry.solan@brooklaw.edu}}
\f5\i0\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 \cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3 \column \f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li134\ri144\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 rules structured as \expnd-1\expndtw-3 mental \expnd0\expndtw0 models. The former tells decision makers \f5 what to do in the ordinary situation, but gives them discretion to deviate from the norm when the facts so demand. \expnd-1\expndtw-3 For instance, \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 law \f5 may say that a person \expnd-1\expndtw-3 alleged \expnd0\expndtw0 to be disabled has the right to attend \f5 any\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 proceedings\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 except\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 good\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 cause\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 shown.\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 Mental\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw-2 models\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 present \f5 decision makers with examples from which they can form a good picture of what the legislature had in mind, but leaves it to them to decide\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 adequacy\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 goodness\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \f6\expnd0\expndtw0 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 t.\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 Many\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 laws\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 provide\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 lists\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li134\qj\sl-188\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex115\cf2 circumstances\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 which\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 they\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 apply,\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 modi\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ed\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 by\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 phrase\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 like\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 including\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li134\ri146\qj\sl271\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 but not \expnd-1\expndtw-3 limited \expnd0\expndtw0 to\f8 \'85\'94 \f5 Such nonexclusive lists \expnd-1\expndtw-3 created \expnd0\expndtw0 laws that give \f5 guided\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 discretion,\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 which\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 decision\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 maker\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 given\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 sense\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 the \f5 kinds\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 situations\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 which\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 law\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 should\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 apply.\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 With\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 speci\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 c\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 rules, \f5 rules\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 based\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 mental\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 models,\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 prototype\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 rules\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 broad\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 standards\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 all \f5 available\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 lawmakers,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 possible\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislate\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 with\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 some\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 degree\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 of \f5 subtlety\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 desired\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 balance\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 between\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 autonomy\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 protection.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li134\fi239\ri147\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 In\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 part\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 2\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 this\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 article,\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 1\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 brie\f6 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 y\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 set\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 forth\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 core\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 issues\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 de- \f5 velopment of adult guardianship law. Part 3 discusses the four\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 styles \f5 of legislating, and the cognitive structures that underlie them. Part 4 illustrates how different guardianship laws use each of these\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 devices \f5 to achieve differing levels of judicial discretion in making decisions about whether a guardian should be appointed and, if so, how much authority over the ward the guardian should be granted. Part 5 is a \charscalex110 brief\expnd3\expndtw14 \expnd0\expndtw0 conclusion.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls2\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li312\fi-178\qj\sl240\slmult1\tx313\f3\fs16\b0\charscalex120\cf2 The tension in adult guardianship\expnd5\expndtw24 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislation\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f3\fs20\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li134\fi239\ri148\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Rules and standards governing the appointment of guardians for adults have been a matter of some controversy for several decades.\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 I \f5 will not explore the issues in great detail here, but touch on them \expnd2\expndtw9 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols1\colno1\colw10670\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3\f5\fs13\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li134\ri6320\sl283\slmult1\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex120\cf2 0160-2527/$ \f8 \'96 \f5 see front matter \'A9 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. \cf3{\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2012.09.013" }}{\fldrslt http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2012.09.013\charscalex100\cf1}}
\charscalex100\cf1 \par\sect\sectd\sbkpage\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols1\colno1\colw10610\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li3155\sl240\slmult1\sb69\tqr\tx10490{\*\bkmkstart 3. Four styles of legislative drafting}{\*\bkmkend 3. Four styles of legislative drafting}\f4\fs12\b0\i1\charscalex115\cf2 L.M. Solan / International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 35\expnd6\expndtw32 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\expnd1\expndtw3 \expnd0\expndtw0 464\f7\i0 \'96\f4\i1 472\f1\i0 \tab \f5 465\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols2\colno1\colw5134\colsr226\colno2\colw5250\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs21\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\sl271\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 order to demonstrate the relationship between legislative styles on the one hand, and policy goals on the\expnd2\expndtw9 \expnd0\expndtw0 other.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\qj\sl271\slmult1\sb2\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 In part as a reaction to press reports of elderly \expnd-1\expndtw-3 individuals \expnd0\expndtw0 being \f5 taken\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 advantage\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 by\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardians\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 should\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 never\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 have\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 been\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 appointed \f5 (see, e.g., {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 Grant & Quinn, 1998}}
\cf3 \cf2 ), concerted efforts have been made, \f5 especially in the 1980s and 1990s to specify the conditions under which a guardian may be appointed, to enhance the procedures for judicial appointment, and to limit the powers of guardians to those \expnd0\expndtw-2 needed\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 well-being\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 disabled\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 individual.\fs10\up7\cf3 1\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \fs16\up0\cf2 Without\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 question, \f5 one of the most \expnd-1\expndtw-3 important developments \expnd0\expndtw0 has been the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 substitution \expnd0\expndtw0 of \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 particular functional disabilities \expnd0\expndtw0 for the earlier \expnd-1\expndtw-3 status-related criteria \expnd0\expndtw0 as \f5\f6\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ndings\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 required\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 before\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 may\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 appointed.\fs10\up7\cf3 2\expnd0\expndtw2 \fs16\expnd0\expndtw0\up0\cf2 Other\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 develop- \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 ments\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 include\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 requiring\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 an\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 interdisciplinary\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 team\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 examine\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 indi- \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 vidual\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 decrease\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 likelihood\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 appointed\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 based\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 a \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 perfunctory evaluation \expnd0\expndtw0 of an \expnd-1\expndtw-3 individual's \expnd0\expndtw0 state of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 affairs \expnd0\expndtw0 based largely \f5 on\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 representations\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 by\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 party\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 petitioning\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian;\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 enhancing \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 procedural\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 requirements\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 ensure\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 respondent\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 an\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 opportu- \f5 nity\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 state\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 objections\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardianship,\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 right\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 petition \f5 to\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 have\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 removed;\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 determining\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 if\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 there\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 less\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 restrictive \f5 alternative to \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardianship \expnd0\expndtw0 and, if not, tailoring the guardianship so \f5 that it leaves the disabled individual with as much \expnd-1\expndtw-4 autonomy \expnd0\expndtw0 as \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 his \expnd-1\expndtw-4 condition allows; \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and \expnd-1\expndtw-4 monitoring \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 disabled individual \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and the \f5 work \expnd0\expndtw0 of the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardian after the guardian has been appointed \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 reduce \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 likelihood \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 overreaching, abuse, \expnd0\expndtw0 or \expnd-1\expndtw-4 downright \expnd-1\expndtw-3 corruption.\fs10\up7\cf3 3 \fs16\expnd-1\expndtw-4\up0\cf2 Addi- \f5 tional changes \expnd0\expndtw0 and \expnd-1\expndtw-4 adjustments \expnd-1\expndtw-3 occur \expnd0\expndtw0 in \expnd-1\expndtw-4 various states\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 annually.\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri1\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb2\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 The goals of these reforms are to ensure that \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardians \expnd0\expndtw0 are \f5 appointed only for those elderly and disabled people who need the assistance of a guardian, and that once a guardian is appointed the individual maintains whatever autonomy is possible. \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Procedures \expnd0\expndtw0 for \f5 the appointment of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardians \expnd0\expndtw0 are \expnd-1\expndtw-3 directed \expnd0\expndtw0 toward maintaining the \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 individual's\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 dignity\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 throughout,\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 while\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 guarding\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 against\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 overreaching.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex115\cf2 Nonetheless,\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 some\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 these\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 reforms\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 have\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 produced\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 some\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 skepticism, \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 (see {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark8" }}{\fldrslt\expnd-1\expndtw-4\cf3 Barnes, 1992; Frolik, 1998}}
\expnd-1\expndtw-4\cf3 \cf2 ). \expnd0\expndtw0 To \expnd-1\expndtw-4 take \expnd-1\expndtw-3 one \expnd-1\expndtw-4 example, consider \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 re- \f5 quirement that \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 alleged incapacitated person attend \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 hearing. \expnd-1\expndtw-5 The \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 result \expnd-1\expndtw-3 has been \expnd-1\expndtw-4 signi\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cant delays \expnd0\expndtw0 in \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 provision \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 protection \expnd-1\expndtw-5 because \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 scheduling\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 problems\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 that\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 result\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 from\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 having\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 bring\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 some\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 individuals \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 with severe mental and/or physical incapacities to court. Moreover, \f5 it is not at all clear how the dignity of such individuals is protected by compelling them to be placed on display, more as an evidentiary {\*\bkmkstart 3.1. Rules and standards: the classic dichotomy}{\*\bkmkend 3.1. Rules and standards: the classic dichotomy}\expnd-1\expndtw-4 exhibit\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 than\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 as\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 person\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 whose\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 individualism\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 being\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 protected.\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 Neither \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 the expense nor the preservation of dignity improves when these \f5 proceedings\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 are\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 conducted\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 at\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 bedside\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 hospital\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 nursing\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 facility \f5 ({\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark11" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 Frolik, 1998:\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 348}}
\cf3\expnd-5\expndtw-26\expnd0\expndtw0 \cf2 ).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri1\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 How\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 well\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 are\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 all\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 these\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 reforms\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 working\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 general\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 matter?\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 We \f5 really do not know. If all and only those in need of guardianship are obtaining\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 level\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 protection\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 at\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 level\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 meets\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 their\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 needs\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 and \f5 maintains their dignity and sense of self, then the system is \expnd-1\expndtw-3 working \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 perfectly. Somewhat less \expnd-1\expndtw-3 ambitiously, \expnd0\expndtw0 if the mandatory \expnd-1\expndtw-3 appointment \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 of counsel for the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 allegedly \expnd0\expndtw0 incapacitated person has \expnd-1\expndtw-3 resulted \expnd0\expndtw0 in less \f5 overreaching\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 without\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 deterring\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 individuals\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 seeking\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardians\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 for \f5 those in need because of expensive and cumbersome procedural hurdles,\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 then\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 reforms\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 will\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 have\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 produced\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 suf\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ciently\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 positive\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 re- \f5 sults at the margins to justify them. If, in contrast, the reforms have led to a signi\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cant increase in the failure to protect society's most vulnerable\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 people,\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 while\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 stemming\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 abuse\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 only\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 few\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 individuals, \f5 then society is probably no better\expnd0\expndtw2 \expnd0\expndtw0 off.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri1\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 I will assume for the remainder of this article that the reforms of the past quarter century have done more good than harm. I make this assumption in the absence of hard data. However, we do \expnd1\expndtw4 \expnd0\expndtw0 know\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb11\f5\fs15\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li107\sl-20\f5\fs2
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\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi108\qj\sl292\slmult1\sb39\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex125\cf2 1 \fs12\expnd-1\expndtw-3\up0 These\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 efforts\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 are\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 discussed\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 great\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 deal\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 literature\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 adult\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardianship\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 during\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 this \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 period.\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 See,\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 e.g.,\expnd-3\expndtw-13 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\expnd-1\expndtw-3\cf3 Johns\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 (1999)}}
\expnd-1\expndtw-3\cf3\expnd-2\expndtw-12\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \cf2 ;\expnd-3\expndtw-13 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark11" }}{\fldrslt\expnd-1\expndtw-3\cf3 Frolik\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 (1998)}}
\expnd-1\expndtw-3\cf3\expnd-2\expndtw-12\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \cf2 ;\expnd-3\expndtw-13 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\expnd-1\expndtw-3\cf3 Hurme\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 (1995)}}
\expnd-1\expndtw-3\cf3\expnd-2\expndtw-12\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \cf2 ;\expnd-3\expndtw-13 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark2" }}{\fldrslt\expnd-1\expndtw-3\cf3 Tor\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 (1993)}}
\expnd-1\expndtw-3\cf3\expnd-2\expndtw-12\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \cf2 ;\expnd-2\expndtw-12 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\expnd-1\expndtw-3\cf3 Grif\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 th\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 (1991)}}
\expnd-1\expndtw-3\cf3\f6\f5\expnd-3\expndtw-13\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \cf2 ; \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-4\expndtw-22 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\expnd-1\expndtw-3\cf3 Hommel,\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Wang,\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Bergman\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 (1990)}}
\expnd-1\expndtw-3\cf3\expnd-4\expndtw-22\expnd-1\expndtw-3\expnd-5\expndtw-24\expnd-1\expndtw-3\expnd-4\expndtw-22\expnd-1\expndtw-3\expnd-5\expndtw-23\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li219\sl-143\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 2 \fs12\up0 See below for discussion of New Mexico's revised statute as an example.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi108\qj\sl292\slmult1\sb10\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex125\cf2 3 \fs12\up0 This summary captures a fair amount of what the literature describes about the \f5 path\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 law.\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 See,\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 e.g.,\expnd-1\expndtw-7 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 Hurme\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 (1995:\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 145)}}
\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3\expnd-1\expndtw-7\expnd0\expndtw0\expnd-1\expndtw-5\expnd0\expndtw0 \cf2 .\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 For\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 discussion\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 recent\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 developments \f5 in\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 monitoring\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardians,\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 see\expnd-2\expndtw-9 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 Karp\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 Wood\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2007)}}
\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3\expnd-2\expndtw-9\expnd0\expndtw0\expnd-2\expndtw-9\expnd0\expndtw0\expnd-2\expndtw-9\expnd0\expndtw0 \cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1 \column \f5\fs21\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\ri110\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex115\cf2 that \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 reforms have \expnd-1\expndtw-3 not led \expnd0\expndtw0 to a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 rash of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 reports \expnd-1\expndtw-3 from the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 press \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-5 indi- \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 viduals\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 need\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 protection\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 not\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 getting\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 it\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 because\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 inappropriately\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 dif- \f5\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cult standards \expnd-1\expndtw-3 or \expnd-1\expndtw-4 because \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 onerous procedures that well-intentioned \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-5 petitioners\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 decide\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 not\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 combat.\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 Moreover,\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 experienced\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 judges,\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 notwith- \f5 standing \expnd-1\expndtw-3 an \expnd-1\expndtw-5 inevitable \expnd-1\expndtw-4 rate \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of \expnd-1\expndtw-5 error, \expnd-1\expndtw-4 develop \expnd-1\expndtw-5 expertise \expnd-1\expndtw-4 over \expnd0\expndtw0 time, which \f5 they\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 hone\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 they\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 receive\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 reports\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 give\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 them\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 at\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 least\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 broad\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 sense \f5 of\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 how\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 each\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 case\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 progressed\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 during\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 each\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw-2 reporting\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 period.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri112\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 I \expnd-1\expndtw-4 further \expnd-1\expndtw-5 assume \expnd-1\expndtw-4 that most \expnd-1\expndtw-5 scholars \expnd-1\expndtw-4 and \expnd-1\expndtw-5 practitioners \expnd-1\expndtw-3 in the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 area \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 adult\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 guardianship\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 share\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 basic\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 set\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 goals\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 protecting\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 vulnerable \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 without \expnd-1\expndtw-5 overreaching, \expnd-1\expndtw-4 which means that \expnd-1\expndtw-5 disagreements \expnd-1\expndtw-4 occur chie\f6 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 y \expnd-1\expndtw-3 at \f5 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 margins. And that brings \expnd0\expndtw0 me to \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-5 contribution \expnd-1\expndtw-4 that \expnd0\expndtw0 I \expnd-1\expndtw-4 wish \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 make \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 in\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 this\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 article.\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 Different\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 states\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 will\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 wish\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 balance\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 ratio\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 protection \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 of \expnd-1\expndtw-5 autonomy \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-5 protection \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-5 individual's \expnd-1\expndtw-4 wealth and health some- \f5 what \expnd-1\expndtw-5 differently. ({\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark5" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 American \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Bar \expnd-1\expndtw-5 Association, \expnd-1\expndtw-4 2011}}
\cf3\expnd-1\expndtw-4\expnd-1\expndtw-5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \cf2 ) \expnd-1\expndtw-3 To \expnd0\expndtw0 do \expnd-1\expndtw-3 so, \expnd-1\expndtw-4 they \expnd-1\expndtw-3 use \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-5 similar-looking, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 but \expnd-1\expndtw-4 quite \expnd-1\expndtw-5 different legislative techniques, \expnd-1\expndtw-4 each \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-5 which \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 presents \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 judge with different levels \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 discretion, based \expnd-1\expndtw-3 on \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-5 differentially-de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ned legislative standards. \expnd0\expndtw0 I \expnd-1\expndtw-4 turn \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 these \expnd-1\expndtw-5 legislative \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 styles \expnd0\expndtw0 in \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 next\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 section.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls2\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li288\fi-178\qj\sl240\slmult1\tx289\f3\fs16\b0\charscalex120\cf2 Four styles of legislative\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \expnd0\expndtw0 drafting\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f3\fs20\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri110\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 As we have just seen, the universally-acknowledged tension in guardianship law is between protecting the rights of the individual to make decisions for him or herself, on the one hand, and making sure that individuals who need guardians get them, on the other. This is exactly the sort of tension that is likely to manifest itself in a \expnd0\expndtw-2 choice\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 between\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 rules\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 standards.\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Statutes\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 set\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 general\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 standards, \f5 more or less saying that those who need the assistance of a guardian should\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 given\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 such\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 assistance\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 those\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 who\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 do\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 need\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 such\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 assis- \f5 tance\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 should\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 not,\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 leaves\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 decision\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 maker\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 virtually\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 total\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 discretion \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 as to when someone should have a guardian appointed. In contrast, \f5\expnd0\expndtw-2 rule-like \expnd0\expndtw0 attempts to list all of the circumstances in which a guardian \f5 should\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 appointed\expnd-1\expndtw-3 leaves \expnd0\expndtw0 less\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 up\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 decision\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 maker,\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 but\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 may\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 ei- \f5 ther leave out some important \expnd-1\expndtw-3 instances \expnd0\expndtw0 or include some that should \f5 not \expnd-1\expndtw-3 provoke guardianship \expnd0\expndtw0 in all cases. Other statutes are drafted as \f5 laws\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 deal\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 with\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 prototypical\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 case,\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 laws\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 help\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 deci- \f5 sion\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 maker\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 develop\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 enriched\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 mental\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 models\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 without\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 cutting\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 off\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 discre- \f5 tion\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 entirely.\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 I\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 will\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 give\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 some\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 illustrations\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 each\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 these,\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 but\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \f6\expnd0\expndtw0 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 rst\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 I\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 will \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 characterize\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 these\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 four\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 styles\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislating\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 more\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 fully.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls2\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li402\fi-292\qj\sl240\slmult1\tx403\f4\fs16\b0\i1\charscalex105\cf2 Rules and standards: the classic \expnd8\expndtw41 \expnd0\expndtw0 dichotomy\i0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f4\fs20\b0\i1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri111\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Those who write statutes are typically faced with a dilemma. By \expnd-1\expndtw-4 drafting laws that incorporate broad standards, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 they \expnd-1\expndtw-4 recognize \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 need \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 for the law \expnd0\expndtw0 to be \expnd-1\expndtw-4 responsive \expnd0\expndtw0 to a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 future whose events \expnd-1\expndtw-3 are \expnd-1\expndtw-4 uncertain, \expnd-1\expndtw-5 but \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 they\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 fail\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 constrain\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 decision\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 makers\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 substantially.\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 This\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 can\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 create\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 prob- \f5 lems\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 society\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 that\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 wishes\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 govern\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 itself\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 under\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 rule\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 law,\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 such\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 as \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 when\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 criminal\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 statute\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 is\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 drafted\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 so\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 vaguely\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 that\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 not\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 clear\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 advance \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 what\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 conduct\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 is\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 proscribed\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 what\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 conduct\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 allowed.\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 In\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 contrast,\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 stat- \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 utory drafters draft statutes \expnd-1\expndtw-3 in \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 rule-like manner that attempts \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 leave \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 much less \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 chance. Here, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 apparent precision \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 statute \expnd-1\expndtw-5 presents \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 its \expnd-1\expndtw-4 enforcer \expnd-1\expndtw-3 with \expnd-1\expndtw-4 more information, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 but the law \expnd-1\expndtw-4 leaves \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-5 interpreter \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 with insuf\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cient \f6 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 exibility \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 deal with novel situations. \expnd-1\expndtw-3 As \expnd-1\expndtw-4 HLA Hart \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 said\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 fty\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 years\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 ago:\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\ri110\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb105\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 [By\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 relying\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 precise\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 rules,\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 w]e\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 shall\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 thus\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 indeed\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 succeed\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 settling \f5 in\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 advance,\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 but\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 also\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 dark,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 issues\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 which\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 can\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 only\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 reasonably\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 be \f5 settled when they arise and are identi\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ed. We shall be \expnd-1\expndtw-3 forced \expnd0\expndtw0 by this \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 technique \expnd0\expndtw0 to include in the scope of a rule cases which we would \f5 wish to exclude in order to give effect to reasonable social aims, and which the open \expnd-1\expndtw-3 textured \expnd0\expndtw0 terms of our language would have \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 allowed \expnd0\expndtw0 us to exclude, had we left them less rigidly de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ned. The ri- gidity of our classi\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cation will thus war with our aims in \expnd0\expndtw-2 having \expnd0\expndtw0 or \f5 maintaining the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 rule.({\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 Hart, \expnd0\expndtw0 1961:\expnd6\expndtw30 \expnd0\expndtw0 127}}
\cf3\expnd0\expndtw0\expnd6\expndtw30\expnd0\expndtw0 \cf2 ).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb104\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Hart's\expnd3\expndtw16 \expnd0\expndtw0 point\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 was\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 new,\expnd3\expndtw16 \expnd0\expndtw0 even\expnd4\expndtw18 \expnd0\expndtw0 then.\expnd3\expndtw16 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark6" }}{\fldrslt\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 Aristotle}}
\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 \expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0\cf2 had\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 noted\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb25\f4\fs16\b0\i1\charscalex115\cf2 Nicomachean\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 Ethics\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \f5\i0\expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 precise\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 rules\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 lead\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 application\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 laws\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbkpage\marglsxn560\margrsxn740\cols1\colno1\colw10610\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\sl240\slmult1\sb69\tx3160\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 466\tab \f4\i1 L.M. Solan / International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 35 (2012)\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 464\f7\i0 \'96\f4\i1 472\i0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3\f4\fs14\b0\i1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn560\margrsxn740\cols2\colno1\colw5137\colsr223\colno2\colw5250\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\qj\sl268\slmult1\sb77\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 in unwanted situations, making it necessary to have judges to exer- cise appropriate discretion to avoid injustice.\fs10\up7\cf3 4 \fs16\up0\cf2 Aristotle's solution, \f5 however,\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 raises\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 another\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 question.\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 When\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 decision\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 maker\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 exercises \f5 discretion consistent with what he or she knows the law to be about, the result may be controversial. Not only may there be\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 disagreement \f5 about the problem the law was directed to solve, but the\expnd7\expndtw35 \expnd0\expndtw0 application\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\qj\sl-127\sb4\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 of the law in the particular circumstances of the case may be\expnd0\expndtw-1 \expnd0\expndtw0 subject\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\sl271\slmult1\sb77\charscalex115 \column \f5\fs16\b0\cf2 margins. For now, though, consider New Jersey's stalking statute, which\expnd4\expndtw18 \expnd0\expndtw0 reads:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri107\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb107\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 A person is guilty of stalking, a crime of the fourth degree, if he purposefully\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 knowingly\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 engages\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 course\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 conduct\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 directed \f5 at a speci\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 c person that would cause a reasonable person to fear bodily\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 injury\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 himself\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 member\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 his\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw-2 immediate\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 family\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\ri348\qr\sl-22\f5\fs10\b0\charscalex135\cf3 6\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn560\margrsxn740\cols2\colno1\colw5138\colsr222\colno2\colw5250\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb83\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 to\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 debate\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 well,\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 (see\expnd-3\expndtw-16 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 Solan,\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 2010:\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 10}}
\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3\expnd-3\expndtw-15\expnd0\expndtw0\expnd-3\expndtw-15\expnd0\expndtw0 \cf2 ).\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 Of\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 course,\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 some\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 cases,\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 such \f5 discretion will be universally welcomed. \expnd0\expndtw-2 Steven {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark3" }}{\fldrslt\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 Winter (1999)}}
\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 \expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0\cf2 illus- \f5 trates\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 this\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 phenomenon\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 with\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 bus\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 driver\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 who\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 ejects\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 passenger\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 be- \f5 cause\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 law\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 bans\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 animals\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 bus\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 theory\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 people \f5 are animals. Along similar \expnd-1\expndtw-3 lines, Richard {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 Posner (2008)}}
\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 \expnd-1\expndtw-3\cf2 writes \expnd0\expndtw0 of the \f5 prosecutor\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 who\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 himself\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 prosecuted\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 possessing\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 child\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 pornography \f5 when\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 only\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 reason\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 he\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 child\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 pornography\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 prosecute\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 the \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 pornographer \expnd0\expndtw0 who created\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 it.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Of course, there is no such bus driver and no prosecutor will be \expnd-1\expndtw-3 imprisoned \expnd0\expndtw0 for prosecuting a child \expnd-1\expndtw-3 pornographer. \expnd0\expndtw0 But if there is no \f5 such\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 bus\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 driver\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 then\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 we\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 really\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 do\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 interpret\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 even\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw-2 rule-like\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 laws\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 consis- \f5 tent\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 with\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 their\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 purpose,\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 regardless\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 how\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 precise\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 they\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 may\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 appear\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 on \f5\charscalex110 their\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 face.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\qj\sl259\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 In\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 describing\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 difference\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 between\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 rules\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 standards,\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 Hart\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 used \f5 the expression \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 open \expnd0\expndtw0 textured.\f8 \'94 \f5 This is a fair description of what\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 we \f5 mean by a standard. Standards and rules \expnd-1\expndtw-3 look \expnd0\expndtw0 exactly the same in \f5\expnd0\expndtw-2 their\expnd6\expndtw28 \expnd0\expndtw-2 structure:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb6\f5\fs19\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex115\cf2 No\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 driver\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 shall\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 drive\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 unreasonably\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 fast.No\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 driver\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 shall\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 exceed\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 65\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 miles \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 per\expnd0\expndtw0 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 hour.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 The \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 rst sentence sets a standard, the second establishes a rule, even though their syntax is identical. Thus, in a sense, a standard is nothing more than a rule, at least one of whose elements \expnd-1\expndtw-3 insuf\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ciently \expnd0\expndtw0 determined by \expnd-1\expndtw-3 language \expnd0\expndtw0 construed outside of context. The \expnd-1\expndtw-3 difference, \expnd0\expndtw0 as \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 Russell {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 Korobkin \expnd0\expndtw0 (2000)}}
\cf3\expnd0\expndtw0 \cf2 points out, is that in deciding whether a\expnd3\expndtw16 \expnd0\expndtw0 driver\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\qj\sl-187\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 has\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 violated\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \f6\expnd0\expndtw0 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 rst\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 law,\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 necessary\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 evaluate\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 facts\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'96\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\qj\sl271\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 driver\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 was\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 driving\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 at\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 90\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 miles\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 per\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 hour\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'96\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 terms\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 law's\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 purpose, \f5 in this case, to enhance road safety. Thus, if the driver was rushing\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 a \f5 heart attack \expnd-1\expndtw-3 victim \expnd0\expndtw0 to the hospital, there would be no need to use \f5 some\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 kind\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 exception\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 forgive\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 driver,\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 since\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 he\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 did\expnd0\expndtw-2 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 violate \f5 the standard in the \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 rst place, assuming that he handled his vehicle with skill. With a set speed limit, in contrast, the judge has a choice between making an exception to the law for cases of emergency, or applying\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 law\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 unjustly\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 include\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw-2 situation\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 enacting\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 legis- \f5 lature would most \expnd-1\expndtw-3 likely \expnd0\expndtw0 have excluded, or at least hope that a judge \f5 hearing\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 such\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 case\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 would\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 have\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 sense\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 exclude.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\qj\sl259\slmult1\sb2\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex115\cf2 Moreover, \expnd0\expndtw0 as \expnd-1\expndtw-4 various scholars \expnd-1\expndtw-3 have \expnd-1\expndtw-4 suggested, \expnd0\expndtw0 we \expnd-1\expndtw-4 might expect to \f5\f6\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nd \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 continuum between rules \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and \expnd-1\expndtw-4 standards, depending \expnd-1\expndtw-3 upon \expnd-1\expndtw-4 how \f5{\*\bkmkstart 3.2. Prototypes and mental models}{\*\bkmkend 3.2. Prototypes and mental models}\f8 \'93\f5 open textured\f8 \'94 \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 statutory \expnd-1\expndtw-3 terms are ({\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 Korobkin, 2000: \expnd0\expndtw0 30; \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Schauer,}}
\cf3\expnd0\expndtw0\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \f5{\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\expnd-1\expndtw-3 1991:\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 650\f8 \'96\f5 51;\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Sunstein,\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 1995:\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 961}}
\expnd-1\expndtw-3\expnd-3\expndtw-16\expnd-1\expndtw-3\f8\f5\expnd-3\expndtw-15\expnd-1\expndtw-3\expnd-3\expndtw-15\expnd-1\expndtw-3\expnd-3\expndtw-16\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \cf2 ).\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 For\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 example,\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 by\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 adding\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 stan- \f5 dard that \expnd0\expndtw0 in \expnd-1\expndtw-3 deciding what \expnd0\expndtw0 is \expnd-1\expndtw-3 reasonable, \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 court must consider \expnd-1\expndtw-4 traf\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 c conditions, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 weather, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 proximity \expnd0\expndtw0 to a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 school \expnd-1\expndtw-3 zone and the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 reasons \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 that\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 driver\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 was\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 driving\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 quickly,\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 standard\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \'93\f5 reasonableness\f8 \'94\expnd-6\expndtw-32 \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 can \expnd-1\expndtw-4 quickly\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 become\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 very\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 rule-like,\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 with\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 analysis\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 various\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 elements\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 that \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 make up the de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nition of \f8 \'93\f5 reasonableness\f8 \'94 \f5 replacing case by case analysis.\fs10\up7\cf3 5\expnd1\expndtw7 \fs16\expnd0\expndtw0\up0\cf2 Once\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 again,\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 more\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislature\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 resorts\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 such\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nition to reduce judicial discretion, the more likely the law is to become underinclusive, overinclusive, or both. Thus, there are tradeoffs in placing a particular rule at any particular place on the rules/ standards continuum, with legislatures having to decide which balance to reach in enacting each particular\expnd4\expndtw18 \expnd0\expndtw0 law.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\ri1\qj\sl271\slmult1\sb11\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 As we will see below in connection with various guardianship statutes, even the most rule-like laws devolve into standards at \expnd8\expndtw38 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri50\sl-162\charscalex115 \column \f5\fs16\b0\cf2 fear\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 death\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 himself\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 member\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 his\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 immediate\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 family.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb5\f5\fs20\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\ri106\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 In\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 some\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 ways,\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 statute\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw-2 rule-like\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 gets.\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 Criminal\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 statutes \f5 are typically organized into elements that the government must prove. The elements are separately necessary and together \expnd-1\expndtw-3 suf\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cient \expnd0\expndtw0 to create criminal liability. In a typical fashion, this crime has a set \f5 of\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 elements,\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nable\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 Boolean\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 terms:\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 To\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 found\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 guilty\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 stalking, \f5 a person\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 must:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls3\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li351\fi-237\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb117\tx352\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 a. purposively\expnd2\expndtw11 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri50\sl240\slmult1\sb24\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 b. \expnd1\expndtw4 \expnd0\expndtw0 knowingly\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls3\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li322\fi-208\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb38\tx323\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 engage in a course of conduct directed at a speci\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 c\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 person\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls3\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li322\fi-208\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb25\tx323\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 that would cause a reasonable\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 person\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls3\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li551\fi-198\sl240\slmult1\sb49\tx552\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 to fear bodily\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 injury\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls3\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li528\fi-206\sl240\slmult1\sb38\tx529\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 to himself\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls3\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li528\fi-206\sl240\slmult1\sb25\tx529\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 to a member of his immediate family\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls3\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li560\fi-207\sl240\slmult1\sb24\tx561\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex120\cf2 to\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 fear\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 death\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls3\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li538\fi-207\sl240\slmult1\sb50\tx539\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 himself\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls3\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li538\fi-207\sl240\slmult1\sb24\tx539\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 a member of his immediate\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 family.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\ri106\qj\sl249\slmult1\sb142\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex115\cf2 Notwithstanding\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 its\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 formal,\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 rule-like\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 structure,\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 however,\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 statute \f5 leaves\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 great\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 deal\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 discretion\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 decision\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 maker.\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 This\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 be- \f5 cause terms like \f8 \'93\f5 reasonable person\f8 \'94 \f5 are classic denotations of a standard\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd4\expndtw20 \expnd0\expndtw0 opposed\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd4\expndtw20 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd4\expndtw19 \expnd0\expndtw0 rule.\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 In\expnd4\expndtw20 \expnd0\expndtw0 addition,\expnd4\expndtw19 \expnd0\expndtw0 what\expnd4\expndtw20 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd4\expndtw19 \expnd0\expndtw0 means\expnd4\expndtw19 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'93\f5 to\expnd4\expndtw19 \expnd0\expndtw0 fear\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\qj\sl-201\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 bodily injury\f8 \'94 \f5 is open to interpretation. How much bodily \expnd0\expndtw2 \expnd0\expndtw0 injury\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri106\qj\sl264\slmult1\sb20\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 must\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 person\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 fear?\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 Is\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 neighbor\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 who\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd0\expndtw-2 \expnd0\expndtw0 recurrently\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 little\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 too\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 com- \f5 fortable on a skateboard a stalker? And the statute does not tell us how much conduct constitutes \f8 \'93\f5 a course of conduct.\f8 \'94 \f5 The problem goes beyond the rules/standards distinction. The dif\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 culty with ex- pressions\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 like\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'93\f5 course\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 conduct\f8 \'94\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 they\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 are\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 speci\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 c,\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 but \f5 rather that we do not seem to use necessary and \expnd-1\expndtw-3 suf\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cient \expnd0\expndtw0 conditions \f5 to\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 determine\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 whether\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 one\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 occurred.\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 Rather,\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 we\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 look\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 at\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 such\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 things \f5 as\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 how\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 much\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 conduct\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw-2 varies\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 one\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 occurrence\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 another,\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 how \f5 many\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 times\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 conduct\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 occurred\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 so\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 far,\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 whether\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 likely\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 to \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 continue. \expnd0\expndtw0 We then combine these, and probably other considerations \f5 in some manner of which we do not have \expnd-1\expndtw-3 conscious \expnd0\expndtw0 control to see \f5 whether the behavior is a good enough match with our concept of \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 course \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 conduct.\f8 \'94 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 In other words, we have some kind of \expnd9\expndtw45 \expnd0\expndtw0 mental\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\qj\sl-190\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 model\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'93\f5 course\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 conduct\f8 \'94\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 neither\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 rule\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 nor\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 standard.\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 We\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb19\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex120\cf2 turn\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 these\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 mental\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw-2 models\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 below.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f5\fs20\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls2\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li407\fi-293\qj\sl240\slmult1\tx408\f4\fs16\b0\i1\charscalex110\cf2 Prototypes and mental\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 models\i0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f4\fs20\b0\i1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\ri106\qr\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 I\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 turn\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 two\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 additional\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 approaches\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislative\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 drafting:\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 legislation\f5\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex120 \charscalex110\charscalex115 by enriched mental \expnd0\expndtw-2 models \expnd0\expndtw0 of the concepts that are the subject\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\f5\charscalex116 \expnd0\expndtw1\charscalex111\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex115 statute, and legislation by prototypes. These are neither\expnd6\expndtw31 \expnd0\expndtw0 rules\expnd5\expndtw26 \expnd0\expndtw0 nor\f5\charscalex115 \charscalex119\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex115 standards. \expnd0\expndtw0 Rather, they re\f6 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 ect ways in which we judge\expnd3\expndtw16 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd0\expndtw2 \expnd0\expndtw0 goodness\f5\charscalex111 \expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex105\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex115 of\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \f6\expnd0\expndtw0 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 t\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 between\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 new\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 experiences\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 categories\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 we\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 have\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 already\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 formed.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\ri106\qj\sl266\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex115\cf2 Traditionally, linguists \expnd0\expndtw0 and \expnd-1\expndtw-3 philosophers \expnd0\expndtw0 of language assumed that \f5 to\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 know\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 meaning\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 an\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 expression\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 was\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 know\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 set\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 conditions \f5 under\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 which\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 expression\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 true.\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 Sometimes\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 called\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 classical\f8 \'94 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 approach to word \expnd-1\expndtw-3 meaning, \expnd0\expndtw0 the goal for each concept is to de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ne the concept\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 with\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 conditions\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 are,\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 sum,\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 both\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 necessary\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 suf\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cient \expnd0\expndtw0 for the concept to obtain. This de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nitional approach to meaning \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ts \expnd0\expndtw0 nicely with a legal system that regulates conduct \expnd5\expndtw26 \expnd0\expndtw0 by promulgating\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb5\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 rules. If we can articulate the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 elements \expnd0\expndtw0 of a crime or tort, that is, \expnd8\expndtw38 \expnd0\expndtw0 all\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn560\margrsxn740\cols1\colno1\colw10610\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb7\f5\fs8\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li112\sl-20\f5\fs2
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\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li223\sl240\slmult1\sb39\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex125\cf2 4\expnd1\expndtw7 \fs12\expnd0\expndtw0\up0 Aristotle.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li223\sl240\slmult1\sb10\tx5474\tx6192\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 5 \expnd4\expndtw21 \fs12\expnd0\expndtw0\up0 As\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 we\expnd4\expndtw20 \expnd0\expndtw0 will\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 see\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 next\expnd4\expndtw22 \expnd0\expndtw0 section,\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 making\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 this\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 list\expnd4\expndtw20 \expnd0\expndtw0 nonexclusive\expnd4\expndtw22 \expnd0\expndtw0 creates\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 rule\charscalex100 \tab \f1\charscalex106{\ul \charscalex100 \tab }\charscalex100 \cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn560\margrsxn740\cols2\colno1\colw5136\colsr224\colno2\colw5250\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri-8\sl297\slmult1\sb33\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex125\cf2 based\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 enriched\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 mental\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 models,\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 since\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 up\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 decision\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 maker\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 decide\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 wheth- \f5 er items not included in the list are close enough to those that\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 are.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi108\ri50\sl290\slmult1\sb10\charscalex120 \column \f5\fs8\b0\up6\cf2 6\expnd3\expndtw14 \fs12\expnd0\expndtw0\up0 N.J.\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 Stat.\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 Ann.\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 2C:12-10(b)\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012).\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 For\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 discussion\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 how\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 such\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 laws\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 impact\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 jury \f5 deliberation, see {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 Solan (2010), ch.\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 7}}
\cf3\expnd3\expndtw17\expnd0\expndtw0 \cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbkpage\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols1\colno1\colw10610\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li3155\sl240\slmult1\sb69\tqr\tx10490\f4\fs12\b0\i1\charscalex115\cf2 L.M. Solan / International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 35\expnd6\expndtw32 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\expnd1\expndtw3 \expnd0\expndtw0 464\f7\i0 \'96\f4\i1 472\f1\i0 \tab \f5 467\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols2\colno1\colw5134\colsr226\colno2\colw5250\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs21\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 and only the conditions under which the crime or tort has occurred, then\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 we\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 can\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 govern\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 ourselves\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 an\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 orderly\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 fashion,\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 (see\expnd-3\expndtw-14 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 Solan,\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 2005}}
\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3\expnd-3\expndtw-15\expnd0\expndtw0 \cf2 ). \f5 Jury\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 instructions\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 are\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 typically\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 structured\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 just\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 this\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 way.\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 They\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 present \f5 a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 legally-relevant \expnd0\expndtw0 concept, such as proximate cause, or \expnd-1\expndtw-3 reasonable \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 doubt,\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 kidnapping,\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 then\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 attempt\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ne\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 concept.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\qj\sl266\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex115\cf2 Beginning\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 1970s,\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 linguists\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 psychologists\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 began\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 discover \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 problems\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 with\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nitional\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 approach\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 word\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 meaning.\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 First,\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 fails\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 to \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 explain the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 intuition \expnd-1\expndtw-3 that some \expnd-1\expndtw-4 things \expnd-1\expndtw-3 seem \expnd0\expndtw0 to be \expnd-1\expndtw-3 better members \expnd0\expndtw0 of a \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 category \expnd-1\expndtw-3 than are \expnd-1\expndtw-4 others. \expnd0\expndtw0 In \expnd-1\expndtw-3 early \expnd-1\expndtw-4 experiments, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 psychologist \expnd-1\expndtw-5 Eleanor \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 Rosch\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 found\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 people\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 always\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 consider,\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 example,\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'93\f5 bed\f8 \'94\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\qj\sl-187\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 better example of furniture than, say, \f8 \'93\f5 piano\f8 \'94 \f5 ({\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 Prinz, 2004; \expnd4\expndtw18 \expnd0\expndtw0 Rosch,\charscalex100\cf1}}
\cf3\expnd4\expndtw18\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1 \par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\qj\sl261\slmult1\sb20{\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf3 1975}}
\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf3 \cf2 ). Second, de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nitions have trouble capturing the fact that our concepts get fuzzy at the margins. To stay with furniture, when\expnd-6\expndtw-32 \expnd0\expndtw0 does \f5 a\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 chair\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 get\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 wide\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 enough\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 become\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 love\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 seat,\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 when\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 does\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 an\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 elon- \f5 gated\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 love\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 seat\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 become\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 sofa?\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 Third,\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 some\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 concepts,\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 such\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 game,\f8 \'94\expnd-9\expndtw-46 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 as Wittgenstein\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 told\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 us,\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 seem\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 better\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 described\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 family\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 resemblance \f5 categories.\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 It\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 almost\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 impossible\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 tell\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 what\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 makes\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 game\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 game. \f5 Yet,\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 we\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 know\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 game\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 when\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 we\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 see\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 one\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 ({\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark4" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 Wittgenstein,\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 1953:\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 31\f8 \'96\f5 32}}
\cf3\expnd-3\expndtw-15\expnd0\expndtw0\expnd-3\expndtw-13\expnd-1\expndtw-3\f8\f5 \cf2 ).\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 We can account for these observations if we claim that people conceptualize\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 terms\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 necessary\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 suf\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cient\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 conditions,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 but \f5 rather\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 terms\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 mental\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw-2 models\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 based\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 goodness\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \f6\expnd0\expndtw0 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 t\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 between \f5 what\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 they\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 are\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 experiencing\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 one\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 hand,\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 categories\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 they\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 have \f5 formed\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 based\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 past\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 experience\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 other. \expnd0\expndtw0 Among\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 things\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\qj\sl256\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 our models contain is information about prototypical instances of a category.\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 When\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 I\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 say\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'93\f5 swimming\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 pool,\f8 \'94\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 you\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 probably\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 envision\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 what \f5 looks to you like a typical swimming pool. When I say \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 doberman pinscher,\f8 \'94\expnd-8\expndtw-39 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 you\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 envision\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 one.\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 These\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 pictures\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 our\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 minds\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 are\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 schematic, \f5 and\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 no\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 doubt\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 are\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 part\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 what\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 means\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 have\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 concept.\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 Similarly, \f5 furniture or fruits are more likely to evoke typical examples of\expnd9\expndtw46 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 these categories than unusual or equivocal ones. These are also part \f5 of our mental\expnd1\expndtw3 \expnd0\expndtw0 models.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb13\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 This is not to say that necessary and \expnd-1\expndtw-3 suf\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cient \expnd0\expndtw0 conditions play no \f5 part\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 conceptualization.\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 In\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw-2 acquiring\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 new\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 concepts,\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 we\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 automatically \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 search\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 unique\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 features\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 make\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 this\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 category\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 different\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 others. \f5 If\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 male\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 female\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 species\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 bird\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 differ\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 only\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 with\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 respect\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 to \f5 their\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 tail\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 plumage,\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 then\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 we\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 have\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 no\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 trouble\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 saying\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 so.\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 The\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 presence\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 of \f5 the plumage is both necessary and suf\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cient to de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ne the sex of the bird. Experiments by psychologist Douglas {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 Medin (1989)}}
\cf3 \cf2 show that \f5 we\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 do\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 indeed\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 use\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 such\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 information\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 conceptualizing.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Moreover,\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 only\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 do\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 we\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 use\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 rule-like\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 features\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 part\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 our\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 con- \f5 ceptualizations, but prototypes are not suf\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cient to account for\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 some \f5 aspects\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 our\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 concepts.\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 For\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 example,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 while\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 people\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 are\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 willing\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 say \f5 that\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 an\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 ostrich\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 poor\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 example\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 bird,\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 whereas\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 robin\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 good\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 ex- \f5 ample, when later asked whether birds are a graded \expnd0\expndtw-2 category, \expnd0\expndtw0 people \f5 answer in the negative. While ostriches may be atypical exemplars, they are birds through and through, (see {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark7" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 Armstrong, \expnd0\expndtw-2 Gleitman, \expnd3\expndtw16 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\charscalex100\cf1}}
\cf3\expnd0\expndtw-2\expnd3\expndtw16\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1 \par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb1{\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark7" }}{\fldrslt\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex115\cf3 Gleitman, \expnd0\expndtw0 1983}}
\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex115\cf3\expnd0\expndtw0 \cf2 for discussion). \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Furthermore, \expnd0\expndtw0 prototype \expnd-1\expndtw-3 theory \expnd0\expndtw0 must \f5 confront the \f8 \'93\f5 pet \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 sh\f8 \'94 \f5 problem. The prototypical pet is a dog; \expnd1\expndtw6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1 \column \f5\fs21\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\ri110\qj\sl266\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 his\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 colleagues\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 indicate,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 (see\expnd-2\expndtw-9 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 Johnson-Laird,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 1983}}
\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3\expnd-2\expndtw-9\expnd0\expndtw0 \cf2 ).\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 This\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 fact\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 part\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 of \f5 what\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 makes\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 Rene\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 Magritte's\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw-2 famous\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 painting\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 pipe,\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 with\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 caption, \f5\f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 this\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 pipe\f8 \'94\expnd-9\expndtw-45 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 (\f4\i1 Ceci\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 n\f5\i0 '\f4\i1 est\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 pas\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 une\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 pipe\f5\i0 )\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 so\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 strange.\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 We\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 do\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 usually \f5 think in terms of what a thing is not. Although we are able to do so, experimentation shows it to be harder, a fact that is routinely recog- nized by experts in English composition, and in those who advocate for clearer jury\expnd1\expndtw6 \expnd0\expndtw0 instructions.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri110\qj\sl256\slmult1\sb6\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 To \expnd-1\expndtw-4 illustrate \expnd-1\expndtw-3 from \expnd0\expndtw0 an \expnd-1\expndtw-3 everyday \expnd-1\expndtw-4 example, \f4\i1 Webster\f5\i0 '\f4\i1 s Third \expnd-1\expndtw-3 New \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Interna- \f4\expnd-1\expndtw-3 tional Dictionary\f5\i0 , one \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 leading dictionaries \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 American English \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 usage, de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nes the word \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \'93\f5 chair\f8 \'94 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 as \expnd-1\expndtw-4 follows: \f8 \'93\f5 [a] usu[ally] movable seat \expnd-1\expndtw-3 that \expnd0\expndtw0 is \expnd-1\expndtw-4 designed \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 accommodate \expnd-1\expndtw-3 one \expnd-1\expndtw-4 person \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and \expnd-1\expndtw-4 typically \expnd-1\expndtw-3 has four legs \f5 and \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 back and \expnd-1\expndtw-4 often \expnd-1\expndtw-3 has \expnd-1\expndtw-4 arms.\f8 \'94 \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 Note that there \expnd0\expndtw0 is \expnd-1\expndtw-3 only one necessary \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 condition: \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 A seat that \expnd0\expndtw0 is \expnd-1\expndtw-4 designed \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 accommodate \expnd-1\expndtw-3 one \expnd-1\expndtw-4 person.\f8 \'94 \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 All \expnd0\expndtw0 of \f5 the other conditions are described as typical, usual or something that \expnd0\expndtw-2 occurs \expnd0\expndtw0 often. They are prototypical features \f8 \'97 \f5 not \expnd-1\expndtw-3 de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nitional \expnd0\expndtw0 ones. \f5 Taken together, these features create a mental model, since they are both \expnd-1\expndtw-3 non-exclusive \expnd0\expndtw0 and \expnd-1\expndtw-3 individually \expnd0\expndtw0 paradigmatic of the concept. (For \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 discussion \expnd0\expndtw0 of the rami\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cations of this approach to de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nition, see {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 Solan}}
\cf3 \f5{\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt &\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 Tiersma,\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 2005:\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 22}}
\expnd-2\expndtw-12\expnd0\expndtw0\expnd-2\expndtw-12\expnd0\expndtw0\expnd-3\expndtw-14\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \cf2 ).\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\qj\sl-203\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Now\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 let\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 us\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 see\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 how\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 this\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 view\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 concepts\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'96\expnd-8\expndtw-40 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 model-driven\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 one\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'96\expnd-8\expndtw-40 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 can\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\ri110\qj\sl261\slmult1\sb19\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 play\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 role\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 decisions\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 about\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 how\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 legislate.\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 While\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 my\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 ultimate\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 focus \f5 will be on \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardianship \expnd0\expndtw0 statutes, \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 rst consider the famous 1931 case, \f4\i1\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex110 McBoyle\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 v.\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 United\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 States\f5\i0 ,\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 decided\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 by\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 U.S.\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 Supreme\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 Court.\fs10\up7\cf3 7\expnd1\expndtw4 \fs16\expnd0\expndtw0\up0\cf2 McBoyle \f5\charscalex115 had\expnd0\expndtw-2 \expnd0\expndtw0 stolen\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 an\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 airplane\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd0\expndtw-2 \f6\expnd0\expndtw0 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 ew\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 one\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 state\expnd0\expndtw-2 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 another.\expnd0\expndtw-2 \expnd0\expndtw0 A\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 statute \f5 made \expnd-1\expndtw-3 it \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 crime \expnd-1\expndtw-3 to \expnd-1\expndtw-5 transport \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 motor vehicle across state lines. The \expnd-1\expndtw-5 issue \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 in\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 case\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 was\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 whether\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 an\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 airplane\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 should\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 considered\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 motor\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 vehicle \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 for purposes of the statute. The statute contained its own de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nition: \f8 \'93\f5 The term \f8 \'91\f5 motor vehicle\f8 \'92 \f5 shall include an automobile, automobile truck, automobile wagon, motor cycle, or any other self-propelled vehicle not designed for running on rails.\f8 \'94\f5\fs10\up7\cf3 8 \fs16\up0\cf2 Writing for a unanimous \f5 Supreme\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 Court,\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 Justice\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 Oliver\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 Wendell\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 Holmes,\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 wrote:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\ri112\qj\sl252\slmult1\sb114\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 No\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 doubt\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 etymologically\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 possible\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 use\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 word\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 signify\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 a \f5 conveyance\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 working\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 land,\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 water\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 air,\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 sometimes\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 legislation \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 extends\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 use\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 direction\f8 \'85\expnd-8\expndtw-38 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 .\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 But\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 everyday\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 speech\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'91\f5 vehicle\f8 \'92 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 calls\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 up\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 picture\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 thing\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw-2 moving\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 land.\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'85\expnd-7\expndtw-36 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 So\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 here,\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 phrase \f5 under\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 discussion\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 calls\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 up\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 popular\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 picture.\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 For\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 after\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 including\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 au-\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\ri110\qj\sl256\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 tomobile\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 truck,\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 automobile\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 wagon\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 motor\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 cycle,\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 words\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 any \expnd0\expndtw0 other\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 self-propelled\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 vehicle\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 designed\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 running\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw-2 rails\f8 \'94\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 still indicate\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 vehicle\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 popular\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 sense,\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 vehicle\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 running \f5 on land, is the theme. It is a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 vehicle \expnd0\expndtw0 that runs, not something,\expnd6\expndtw30 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\ri110\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb13\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex120\cf2 commonly\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 called\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 vehicle,\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \f6\expnd0\expndtw0 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 ies.\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Airplanes\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 were\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 well\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 known \f5 in\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 1919,\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 when\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 this\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 statute\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 was\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 passed;\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 but\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 admitted\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 they \f5 were\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 mentioned\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 reports\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 debates\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Congress.\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 It \f5 is\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 impossible\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \expnd0\expndtw0 read\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \expnd0\expndtw0 words\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-8\expndtw-38 \expnd0\expndtw0 so\expnd-8\expndtw-39 \expnd0\expndtw0 carefully\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 enumerate\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-8\expndtw-38 \expnd0\expndtw-2 different \f5\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex115 forms\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 motor\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 vehicles\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 have\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 no\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 reference\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 any\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 kind\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 aircraft, \f5\charscalex120 as including airplanes under a term that usage more and\expnd7\expndtw33 \expnd0\expndtw0 more\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\qj\sl-7\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 precisely con\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nes to a different\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 class.\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols1\colno1\colw10610\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\ri2056\qr\sl-194\f5\fs10\b0\charscalex135\cf3 9\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols2\colno1\colw5134\colsr226\colno2\colw5250\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb20\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 prototypical \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 sh is a trout; but the prototypical pet \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 sh is a guppy or\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 gold\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 sh.\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Thus,\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 there\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 must\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 more\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 concepts\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 than\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 their\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 prototypes \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 because when \expnd0\expndtw0 we \expnd-1\expndtw-4 combine concepts \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 prototypes \expnd0\expndtw0 do \expnd-1\expndtw-3 not \expnd-1\expndtw-4 account \expnd-1\expndtw-5 for \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 meaning \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 new, combined concept, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 (see {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark10" }}{\fldrslt\expnd-1\expndtw-4\cf3 Connolly, \expnd-1\expndtw-5 Fodor,}}
\expnd-1\expndtw-4\cf3\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \f5{\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark10" }}{\fldrslt\expnd-1\expndtw-4 Gleitman,\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 &\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Gleitman,\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 2007;\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Fodor\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 &\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Lepore,\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 1996}}
\expnd-1\expndtw-4\expnd-6\expndtw-31\expnd0\expndtw0\expnd-6\expndtw-31\expnd-1\expndtw-4\expnd-6\expndtw-31\expnd-1\expndtw-3\expnd-6\expndtw-31\expnd-1\expndtw-4\expnd-6\expndtw-31\expnd0\expndtw0\expnd-6\expndtw-31\expnd-1\expndtw-4\expnd-6\expndtw-31\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \cf2 ).\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 It\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 seems,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 then,\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 our\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 concepts\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 contain\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 information\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 about\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 salient \f5 features in addition to \expnd-1\expndtw-3 information \expnd0\expndtw0 about de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ning features, with con- tinuing debate about the roles that these features play, along with other\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 conceptual\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 elements,\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 such\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 our\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw-2 intuitive\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 causal\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 theories\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\qj\sl-128\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 world.\expnd-3\expndtw-15 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 Murphy\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2004)}}
\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3\expnd-3\expndtw-14\expnd0\expndtw0 \expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0\cf2 provides\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 an\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw-2 excellent\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 summary\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 analysis\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri110\qj\sl261\slmult1\sb125\charscalex110 \column \f5\fs16\b0\cf2 Holmes's words are a remarkable tribute to the mental model as a means of conceptualization. Although it is clear enough that an air- plane is a type of vehicle, the \f8 \'93\f5 picture\f8 \'94 \f5 that enters one's mind when one thinks of that word is a type of schematic land vehicle, which excludes airplanes \f8 \'97 \f5 at least it did in 1931. And the examples that the Congress included in its non-exclusive list of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 vehicles \expnd0\expndtw0 supports \f5 that everyday \expnd-1\expndtw-3 conceptualization. \expnd0\expndtw0 By making it part of the statute, the \f5 legislature gave the courts guided discretion as to which of the things in\expnd5\expndtw25 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd5\expndtw24 \expnd0\expndtw0 world\expnd5\expndtw24 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd4\expndtw22 \expnd0\expndtw0 might\expnd5\expndtw24 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd5\expndtw25 \expnd0\expndtw0 considered\expnd5\expndtw24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 vehicles\expnd5\expndtw26 \expnd0\expndtw0 should\expnd5\expndtw24 \expnd0\expndtw0 count\expnd5\expndtw25 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd5\expndtw24 \expnd0\expndtw0 such\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li2012\ri3064\qc\sl-32\f5\fs10\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex135\cf3 10\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols3\colno1\colw5133\colsr227\colno2\colw2025\colsr115\colno3\colw3110\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\sl240\slmult1\sb82\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 the various theories under current debate and, perhaps more \expnd2\expndtw9 \expnd0\expndtw0 impor-\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\ri-12\sl-162\charscalex115 \column \f5\fs16\b0\cf2 in construing the\expnd1\expndtw5 \expnd0\expndtw0 statute.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\sl-162\charscalex115 \column \f5\fs16\b0\cf2 As Holmes notes, in this instance \expnd1\expndtw7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols1\colno1\colw10610\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\sl240\slmult1\sb24\tx5470\tx6187\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 tantly,\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 good\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 sense\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 many\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 issues\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 have\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 now\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 been\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 resolved.\charscalex100 \tab \f1\charscalex99{\ul \charscalex100 \tab }\charscalex100 \cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols2\colno1\colw5133\colsr227\colno2\colw5250\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb25\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 The breadth of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 information \expnd0\expndtw0 that we use is important in the\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislative \f5 context, because it enables lawmakers to write laws with different kinds\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 conceptual\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 features\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 mind.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Finally,\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 our\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 models\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 typically\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 contain\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 information\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 about\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 what\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 in \f5 a concept, and not what is not part of the concept. This is not\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 always \f5 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 case,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 but\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 typically\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 true,\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 experiments\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 by\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 Johnson-Laird\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li219\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb58\charscalex120 \column \f5\fs8\b0\up6\cf2 7 \expnd1\expndtw4 \fs12\expnd0\expndtw0\up0\cf3 McBoyle\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 v.\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 United\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 States,\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 283\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 U.S.\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 25\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 (1931)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li219\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb10\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 8 \expnd0\expndtw1 \fs12\expnd0\expndtw0\up0\cf3 National\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 Motor\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 Vehicle\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 Theft\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 Act\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 1919,\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 18\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 U.S.C.\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 Section\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 408\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 (1931)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li219\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb10\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 9 \fs12\up0 283 U.S. at\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 26\f8 \'96\f5 27.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi53\ri112\qj\sl295\slmult1\sb7\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex115\cf2 10 \fs12\up0 The procedure of construing a disputed event as having to have a character similar \f5 to that of the enumerated entries in a non-exclusive list is called \f4\i1 ejusdem generis\f5\i0 , and is widely accepted by the courts as a canon of construction. For a recent application, see \cf3 Hall Street Assocs., LLC v. Mattel, Inc., 552 U.S. 5766, 586\expnd2\expndtw11 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2008)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbkpage\marglsxn560\margrsxn740\cols1\colno1\colw10610\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\sl240\slmult1\sb69\tx3160\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 468\tab \f4\i1 L.M. Solan / International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 35 (2012)\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 464\f7\i0 \'96\f4\i1 472\i0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3\f4\fs14\b0\i1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn560\margrsxn740\cols2\colno1\colw5141\colsr219\colno2\colw5250\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri3\qj\sl268\slmult1\sb53\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 concept's\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 prototype,\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 is,\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 its\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 use\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'93\f5 everyday\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 speech\f8 \'94\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 matches\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 concept\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislature\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 intended\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 applied.\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 But\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 needs\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 not \f5\expnd0\expndtw-2 always\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 case.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\qj\sl256\slmult1\sb3\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Next\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 consider\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 following\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 criminal\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 statute\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 New\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 Jersey\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 that \f5 de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nes \f8 \'93\f5 weapon.\f8 \'94\expnd-8\expndtw-41 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 The statute begins with a rule: a weapon is \f8\expnd0\expndtw2 \'93\f5 any- \expnd0\expndtw0 thing readily capable of lethal use or of in\f6 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 icting serious bodily \expnd0\expndtw2 in- \f5 jury.\f8 \'94\f5\fs10\up7\cf3 11 \fs16\expnd0\expndtw0\up0\cf2 This, of course, produces a tautology. Any time a victim is \f5 seriously hurt by \f8 \'93\f5 anything\f8 \'94 \f5 then he was hurt by a weapon, since the injury itself shows ipso facto that the thing was capable of in\f6 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 icting serious bodily injury. The only inquiry is whether it \expnd0\expndtw2 was \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 readily capable of doing so. But the statute goes on. It creates an \f5 enriched mental model by adding the words \f8 \'93\f5 includes, but is \expnd0\expndtw2 not \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 limited to\f8 \'94\f5 , and then giving examples of an extended vision of a typical \expnd0\expndtw2 weaponry.\fs10\up7\cf3 12 \fs16\expnd0\expndtw0\up0\cf2 Thus, the statute tells us to reason from \expnd0\expndtw2 the \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 bottom up. If the potential weapon reminds us closely enough of\expnd9\expndtw46 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 the statutory examples, then it counts as a weapon for purposes of \f5 the\expnd8\expndtw38 \expnd0\expndtw0 statute.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\ri2\qj\sl271\slmult1\sb13\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex115\cf2 The\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 New\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Jersey\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 statute\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 not\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 perfectly-drafted\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 piece\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 legislation. \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 The rule and the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 model \expnd0\expndtw0 do \expnd-1\expndtw-3 not say the same \expnd-1\expndtw-4 thing, \expnd0\expndtw0 so it \expnd-1\expndtw-4 leaves \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 fair \f5 amount \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 uncertainty \expnd-1\expndtw-3 even with the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 model. \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Should \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 paintball \expnd-1\expndtw-3 gun \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 count \expnd0\expndtw0 as a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 weapon \expnd-1\expndtw-3 under the statute?\fs10\up7\cf3 13 \fs16\up0\cf2 What \expnd-1\expndtw-4 about \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 plastic fork?\fs10\up7\cf3 14 \f5\fs16\expnd-1\expndtw-3\up0\cf2 But\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 these\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 two\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 cognitive\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 styles\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 are\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 very\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 much\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 part\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 legislative\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 rep- \f5 ertoire.\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 My\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 point\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 that\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 legislatures\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 will\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 well-served\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 use\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 model-like \f5 legislation \expnd-1\expndtw-3 when that \expnd0\expndtw0 is \expnd-1\expndtw-3 what they intend \expnd-1\expndtw-4 anyway. \expnd0\expndtw0 It \expnd-1\expndtw-3 means \expnd-1\expndtw-4 accepting \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 less \expnd-1\expndtw-4 certainty \expnd-1\expndtw-3 than would \expnd0\expndtw0 be \expnd-1\expndtw-4 produced \expnd0\expndtw0 by a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 rule that \expnd-1\expndtw-4 actually \expnd-1\expndtw-3 works \expnd-1\expndtw-4 in \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 all cases. But it means much better law than a rule that does not \f5 work because it is inherently underinclusive, overinclusive, or both. Note in this context that the use of broad standards can be discussed either in terms of rules or models. When embedded in a rule-like statute, the standard makes the statute appear to be vacuous, leaving the\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 discretion\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 decision\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 maker.\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 When\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 seen\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 terms\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 model, \f5 the broad standard is simply an impoverished model, with not very much\expnd1\expndtw6 \expnd0\expndtw0 information.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls2\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li293\fi-179\qj\sl240\slmult1\tx294{\*\bkmkstart 4. Four approaches to guardianship law}{\*\bkmkend 4. Four approaches to guardianship law}{\*\bkmkstart 4. Four approaches to guardianship law}{\*\bkmkend 4. Four approaches to guardianship law}\f3\fs16\b0\charscalex120\cf2 Four approaches to guardianship\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 law\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f3\fs20\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\ri1\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Now let us turn to \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardianship \expnd0\expndtw0 law. I \expnd-1\expndtw-3 will \expnd0\expndtw0 present guardianship \f5 statutes from several states, and discuss the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 differences \expnd0\expndtw0 among them \f5 in\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 terms\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 taxonomy\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 I\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 have\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw-2 developed\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 here.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls2\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li407\fi-293\qj\sl240\slmult1\tx408{\*\bkmkstart 4.1. Rule-driven statutes}{\*\bkmkend 4.1. Rule-driven statutes}{\*\bkmkstart 4.1. Rule-driven statutes}{\*\bkmkend 4.1. Rule-driven statutes}\f4\fs16\b0\i1\charscalex110\cf2 Rule-driven\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 statutes\i0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f4\fs20\b0\i1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls2\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li529\fi-415\qj\sl240\slmult1\tx530{\*\bkmkstart 4.1.1. From standards to rules in new Mexico}{\*\bkmkend 4.1.1. From standards to rules in new Mexico}{\*\bkmkstart 4.1.2. West Virginia \'97 a rule-driven statute}{\*\bkmkend 4.1.2. West Virginia \'97 a rule-driven statute}{\*\bkmkstart 4.1.2. West Virginia \'97 a rule-driven statute}{\*\bkmkend 4.1.2. West Virginia \'97 a rule-driven statute}\f4\fs16\b0\i1\charscalex110\cf2 From\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 standards\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 rules\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 new\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 Mexico\i0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\ri4\qj\sl-210\sb6\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Compare New Mexico's 1978 statute de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ning \f8 \'93\f5 incapacitated person,\f8 \'94\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri1\qj\sl268\slmult1\sb97\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 F. \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 [I]ncapacitated \expnd0\expndtw0 person\f8 \'94 \f5 means any person who is impaired by reason of mental illness, mental \expnd-1\expndtw-3 de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ciency, \expnd0\expndtw0 physical illness or dis- \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 ability, advanced \expnd0\expndtw0 age, chronic use of drugs, chronic intoxication or \f5 other\expnd5\expndtw25 \expnd0\expndtw0 cause,\expnd5\expndtw25 \expnd0\expndtw0 except\expnd4\expndtw22 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 minority,\expnd5\expndtw26 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd5\expndtw25 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd5\expndtw25 \expnd0\expndtw0 extent\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd4\expndtw22 \expnd0\expndtw0 he\expnd4\expndtw22 \expnd0\expndtw0 lacks\expnd5\expndtw24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 suf\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cient\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs20\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs20\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb11\f5\fs14\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li112\sl-20\f5\fs2
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\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li167\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb39\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 11 \fs12\up0\cf3 N.J. Stat. Ann. Section 2C:39-1\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi53\ri3\qj\sl290\slmult1\sb10\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 12 \f8\fs12\up0 \'93\f5 Weapon\f8 \'94 \f5 means anything readily capable of lethal use or of in\f6 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 icting serious bodily injury. The term includes, but is not limited to, all (1) \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 rearms, even though not loaded or lacking a clip or other component to render them immediately \expnd0\expndtw2 \expnd0\expndtw0 operable;\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls4\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri4\qj\sl297\slmult1\sb6\tx351\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex120\cf2 components which can be readily assembled into a weapon; (3) gravity knives, switchblade knives, daggers, dirks, stilettos, or other dangerous knives, billies, black- jacks, bludgeons, metal knuckles, sandclubs, slingshots, cesti or similar leather bands studded with metal \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 lings or razor blades imbedded in wood; and (4) stun guns; \expnd7\expndtw36 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 and any weapon or other device which projects, releases, or emits tear gas or any other \f5 substance intended to produce temporary physical discomfort or permanent injury through being vaporized or otherwise dispensed in the air. \cf3 N.J. Stat. Ann. Section \f5 2C:39-1(r)\expnd6\expndtw29 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li167\qj\sl-140\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 13 \fs12\up0 The Supreme Court of New Jersey said yes to that question. See \cf3 In the Interest \expnd6\expndtw31 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb33\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf3 G.C., 846 A.2d 1222 (N.J.\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 2004)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi53\ri3\qj\sl290\slmult1\sb10\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 14 \fs12\up0 Here, the Supreme Court of New Jersey said no. See \cf3 Connor v. Powell, 744 A.2d \f5 1158 (N.J.\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 2000)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri108\qj\sl254\slmult1\sb77\charscalex115 \column \f5\fs16\b0\cf2 understanding\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 capacity\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 make\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 communicate\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 responsible\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 de- \f5 cisions\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 concerning\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 his\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 person\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 management\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 his\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 affairs.\fs10\up7\cf3 15\up0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb118\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 with the 2012 version of the same\expnd5\expndtw23 \expnd0\expndtw0 law:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls5\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri107\qj\sl271\slmult1\sb106\tx512\f8\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-5\charscalex115\cf2 \'93\f5 incapacitated \expnd-1\expndtw-4 person\f8 \'94 \f5 means \expnd-1\expndtw-3 any \expnd-1\expndtw-4 person \expnd-1\expndtw-3 who \expnd-1\expndtw-5 demonstrates \expnd-1\expndtw-4 over \f5 time either partial \expnd0\expndtw0 or \expnd-1\expndtw-4 complete functional impairment \expnd0\expndtw0 by \expnd-1\expndtw-4 reason \expnd0\expndtw0 of \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 mental\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 illness,\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 mental\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ciency,\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 physical\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 illness\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 disability,\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 chronic \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 use \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 drugs, chronic intoxication \expnd-1\expndtw-3 or \expnd-1\expndtw-4 other cause, except minority, to \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 extent that \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 person \expnd0\expndtw0 is \expnd-1\expndtw-4 unable \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 manage \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 person's personal \f5 affairs\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 or\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 person\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 unable\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 manage\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 person's\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 estate\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nan- \expnd-1\expndtw-4 cial affairs \expnd-1\expndtw-3 or\expnd-7\expndtw-36 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 both;\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb8\f5\fs13\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls5\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri107\qj\sl271\slmult1\tx551\f8\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 \'93\f5 inability to manage the person's personal care\f8 \'94 \f5 means the\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 in- \f5 ability, as evidenced by recent behavior, to meet one's needs for medical\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 care,\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 nutrition,\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 clothing,\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 shelter,\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 hygiene\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 safety\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 so\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 that \f5 physical\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 injury,\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 illness\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 disease\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 occurred\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 likely\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 occur \f5 in the near\expnd6\expndtw32 \expnd0\expndtw0 future;\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb7\f5\fs13\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls5\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri108\qj\sl266\slmult1\tx536\f8\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex115\cf2 \'93\f5 inability\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 manage\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 person's\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 estate\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nancial\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 affairs\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 both\f8 \'94 \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 means gross mismanagement, \expnd0\expndtw0 as \expnd-1\expndtw-4 evidenced \expnd0\expndtw0 by \expnd-1\expndtw-4 recent behavior, of \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 one's \expnd-1\expndtw-4 income \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and \expnd-1\expndtw-4 resources \expnd0\expndtw0 or \expnd-1\expndtw-4 medical inability \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 manage \expnd-1\expndtw-3 one's in- \f5 come\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 resources\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 that\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 has\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 led\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 likely\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 near\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 future\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 lead \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 to \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nancial\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 vulnerability.\fs10\up7\cf3 16\expnd0\expndtw0\up0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb6\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\ri107\qj\sl259\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 The current version is much longer. That is because it retains the \expnd-1\expndtw-5 original\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 statute's\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 use\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 various\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 statuses\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 as\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 necessary\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 conditions\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 for\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nd- \expnd-1\expndtw-4 ing \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of \expnd-1\expndtw-5 incapacity, \expnd-1\expndtw-4 but then adds \expnd-1\expndtw-5 rule-like de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nitions \expnd0\expndtw0 in \expnd-1\expndtw-3 two \expnd-1\expndtw-4 new sections \f5 that convert \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-5 standard \expnd-1\expndtw-4 like \f8 \'93\f5 to \expnd-1\expndtw-5 manage \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 person's \expnd-1\expndtw-5 personal affairs\expnd7\expndtw36 \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 or\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 person\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 is\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 unable\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 manage\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 person's\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 estate\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 or\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nancial\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 affairs\f8 \'94 \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 from\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 more\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 or\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 less\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 standard\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 more\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 less\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 rule.\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 The\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 move\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 from\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 stan- \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 dards \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 rules \expnd0\expndtw0 is \expnd-1\expndtw-3 one \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-3 be \expnd-1\expndtw-4 expected when \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-5 legislature \expnd0\expndtw0 is \expnd-1\expndtw-5 concerned\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 that\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri108\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb10\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex115\cf2 decision makers \expnd-1\expndtw-3 are \expnd-1\expndtw-4 abusing discretion. \expnd-1\expndtw-3 If \expnd-1\expndtw-4 followed, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the new \expnd-1\expndtw-4 rule is \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-5 designed \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 make \expnd-1\expndtw-3 it \expnd-1\expndtw-4 more dif\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cult \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 meet \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-5 requirements \expnd-1\expndtw-4 needed \expnd0\expndtw0 to \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 trigger \expnd-1\expndtw-5 guardianship. \expnd-1\expndtw-4 One would not, however, expect this change \expnd0\expndtw0 to \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-5 manifest \expnd-1\expndtw-4 itself \expnd0\expndtw0 in \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 denial \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of \expnd-1\expndtw-5 guardianship. \expnd-1\expndtw-4 This \expnd-1\expndtw-3 is so \expnd-1\expndtw-4 for \expnd-1\expndtw-3 two \expnd-1\expndtw-5 reasons. \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 For \expnd-1\expndtw-4 one thing, repeat players \expnd-1\expndtw-3 in the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 system \expnd-1\expndtw-3 are \expnd-1\expndtw-4 likely \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 adjust \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-5 the \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 new \expnd-1\expndtw-4 law, perhaps \expnd-1\expndtw-5 changing \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 cohort \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-5 applicants \expnd-1\expndtw-3 at the \expnd-1\expndtw-5 margins, but \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 not \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-5 distribution \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of \expnd-1\expndtw-5 results \expnd-1\expndtw-4 among those who \expnd-1\expndtw-3 do \expnd-1\expndtw-5 apply, \expnd-1\expndtw-4 (see {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 Priest \expnd0\expndtw0 &}}
\cf3\expnd0\expndtw0 \f5{\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\expnd-1\expndtw-5 Klein, \expnd-1\expndtw-4 1984}}
\expnd-1\expndtw-5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \cf2 ). For \expnd-1\expndtw-5 another, \expnd-1\expndtw-4 while \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-5 baseline \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 abuse \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 wards \expnd0\expndtw0 is \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-5 disturbing,\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 as\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 noted\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 earlier,\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 there\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 all\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 likelihood\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 far\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 greater\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 baseline \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 neglect \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 disabled, with most people applying \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for \expnd-1\expndtw-5 guardianship \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 well \expnd0\expndtw0 on \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 right side \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 line \expnd-1\expndtw-3 no \expnd-1\expndtw-4 matter where \expnd0\expndtw0 it \expnd-1\expndtw-3 is\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 drawn.\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb10\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls2\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li529\fi-415\qj\sl240\slmult1\tx530\f4\fs16\b0\i1\charscalex105\cf2 West Virginia \f7\i0 \'97 \f4\i1 a rule-driven \expnd3\expndtw14 \expnd0\expndtw0 statute\i0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\ri110\qj\sl271\slmult1\sb25\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex115\cf2 The\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 West\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Virginia\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 approach\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 is\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 similar.\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Its\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 goal\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 establish\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 replicable \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 criteria \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 appointment \expnd0\expndtw0 of a\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 guardian.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls6\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri107\qj\sl247\slmult1\sb83\tx917\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 De\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nitions\f8 \'93\f5 Guardian\f8 \'94 \f5 means a person appointed by the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 court \expnd-1\expndtw-3 who \expnd0\expndtw0 is \expnd-1\expndtw-4 responsible \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 personal affairs \expnd0\expndtw0 of a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 protected person, \f5 and, where \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 context plainly indicates, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the term \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \'93\f5 guardian\f8 \'94 \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 shall \expnd-1\expndtw-3 mean \expnd0\expndtw0 or \expnd-1\expndtw-4 include \expnd0\expndtw0 a \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \'93\f5 limited guardian\f8 \'94 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 or a \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \'93\f5 temporary \expnd5\expndtw26 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 guardian.\f8 \'94\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb9\f8\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri107\qj\sl271\slmult1\f8\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 \'93\f5 Protected person\f8 \'94 \f5 means an adult individual, eighteen years of age\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 older,\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 who\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 been\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 found\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 by\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 court,\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 because\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 mental\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 im- \f5 pairment, to be unable to receive and evaluate information effec- tively or to respond to people, events, and environments to such an extent that the individual lacks the\expnd5\expndtw24 \expnd0\expndtw0 capacity:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls6\ilvl3\nooverflow\nocwrap\li831\fi-325\ri107\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb2\tx832\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 to meet the essential requirements for his or her health, care, safety, habilitation, or therapeutic needs without the assistance or protection of a guardian;\expnd0\expndtw1 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls6\ilvl3\nooverflow\nocwrap\li831\fi-314\ri106\qj\sl273\slmult1\tx832\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 to\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 manage\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 property\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \f6\expnd0\expndtw0 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nancial\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 affairs\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 provide\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 his\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 or \f5\charscalex120 her\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 support\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 support\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 legal\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 dependents\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 without\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb5\f5\fs15\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li112\sl-20\f5\fs2
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\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi53\ri109\qj\sl292\slmult1\sb39\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 15 \fs12\up0 This de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nition is still part of the New Mexico Law, in the section dealing with the capacity to participate in a court proceeding. See \cf3 N.M. Stat. Ann. Section 38-4-14 \f5 (2012)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li167\qj\sl-142\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 16 \fs12\up0\cf3 N.M. Stat. Ann. Section 45-5-101(F -H)\expnd0\expndtw2 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbkpage\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols1\colno1\colw10610\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li3155\sl240\slmult1\sb69\tqr\tx10490{\*\bkmkstart 4.2. A standard-driven statute}{\*\bkmkend 4.2. A standard-driven statute}\f4\fs12\b0\i1\charscalex115\cf2 L.M. Solan / International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 35\expnd6\expndtw32 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\expnd1\expndtw3 \expnd0\expndtw0 464\f7\i0 \'96\f4\i1 472\f1\i0 \tab \f5 469\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols2\colno1\colw5135\colsr225\colno2\colw5250\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs21\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li828\ri1\qj\sl254\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 the assistance or \expnd-1\expndtw-3 protection \expnd0\expndtw0 of a conservator. A \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nding\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 that \f5 the\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 individual\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 displays\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 poor\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 judgment,\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw-2 alone,\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 will\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 con- \f5 sidered\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 suf\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cient\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 evidence\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 individual\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 protected \f5 person within the meaning of this subsection. \f8 \'93\f5 Protected person\f8 \'94\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 also\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 means\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 person\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 whom\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 court\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 determined \f5 is a missing\expnd4\expndtw22 \expnd0\expndtw0 person.\fs10\up7\cf3 17\up0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs17\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 The West Virginia statute is very speci\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 c in the \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ndings that a court must make in order to \expnd1\expndtw4 appoint \expnd0\expndtw0 a guardian. The legislature \expnd9\expndtw46 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 has gone out of its way to instruct the decision maker that it should \f5 not appoint guardians for those who do not use good judgment in managing their affairs, reducing the likelihood of overreaching. And the criteria relate to particular functions more than they do to particular statuses, in keeping with the typical legal reforms of the past several\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 decades.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Of course, some of the concepts within the statute are\expnd-6\expndtw-32 \expnd0\expndtw0 themselves \f5 quite broad, making this to some extent a rule of standards. But the contrast between a true standards approach (see below) and the\expnd9\expndtw46 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 West Virginia approach is quite stark: the former makes it easy for \f5 decision makers to appoint guardians for those who need them; the latter makes it possible to appoint guardians, but only after speci\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 c \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ndings\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 speci\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cally\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 limit\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 circumstances\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 which\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 proper \f5 to\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 do\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 so.\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 One\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 focuses\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 ensuring\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 protection\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 those\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 need\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 help, \f5 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 other\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 focuses\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 protecting\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 rights\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 individuals\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 continue\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 to \f5 run their own\expnd1\expndtw3 \expnd0\expndtw0 lives.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls7\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li402\fi-292\sl240\slmult1\sb96\tx403\f4\fs16\b0\i1\charscalex110\cf2 A standard-driven\expnd0\expndtw-2 \expnd0\expndtw0 statute\i0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f4\fs20\b0\i1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri1\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex115\cf2 Next,\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 let\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 us\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 consider\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Tennessee's\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 guardianship\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 statute,\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 which\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 remains \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 standard-driven. \expnd-1\expndtw-3 As in \expnd-1\expndtw-4 many cases, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the key \expnd-1\expndtw-4 provisions \expnd-1\expndtw-3 are \expnd0\expndtw0 in \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ni- tions \expnd0\expndtw0 and in certain procedures. Tennessee de\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nes a disabled person \expnd-1\expndtw-3 tautologically\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 mean\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 someone\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 who\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 needs\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb105\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 34-11-101\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 De\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nitions\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls7\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\ri1\qj\sl271\slmult1\tx468\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 * *(7) \f8 \'93\f5 Disabled person\f8 \'94 \f5 means any person eighteen (18) years of age or older determined by the court to be in need of partial {\*\bkmkstart 4.3. Prototypes in guardianship laws}{\*\bkmkend 4.3. Prototypes in guardianship laws}or full supervision, protection and assistance by reason of mental \f5 illness, physical illness or injury, developmental disability or other mental or physical\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 incapacity;\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb5\f5\fs22\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls7\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\ri1\qj\sl259\slmult1\tx468\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 * *(10) \f8 \'93\f5 Guardian\f8 \'94 \f5 or \f8 \'93\f5 co-guardian\f8 \'94 \f5 means a person or persons appointed by the court to provide partial or full supervision, protec- tion and assistance of the person or property or both of a \expnd1\expndtw5 \expnd0\expndtw0 minor.\fs10\up7\cf3 18\up0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs19\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri1\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 The\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 statute\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 provides\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 only\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 most\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 general\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 standard\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 determining \f5 for\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 whom\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 should\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 appointed.\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 I\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 do\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 mean\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 suggest\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 that \f5 this\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 approach\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 bad\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 principle.\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 But\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 its\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 success\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 will\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 depend\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 heavily\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 on \f5 how\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 well\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 decision\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 maker\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 does\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 making\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 intelligent\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 choices\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 with \f5 almost no legislative guidance. The statute shows little concern\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 with \f5 the need to protect the individual's autonomy, focusing instead on giving judges the leeway to protect the\expnd7\expndtw36 \expnd0\expndtw0 vulnerable.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\qj\sl268\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex115\cf2 Like\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 many\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 guardianship\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 statutes,\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Tennessee\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 has\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 provision\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 requiring \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 court \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-3 use the least \expnd-1\expndtw-4 restrictive alternative \expnd0\expndtw0 in \expnd-1\expndtw-4 appointing guardians, \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 and \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-3 make \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ndings \expnd0\expndtw0 by \expnd-1\expndtw-4 clear \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and \expnd-1\expndtw-4 convincing \expnd-1\expndtw-3 evidence.\fs10\up7\cf3 19 \fs16\up0\cf2 But nowhere \f5 does the code give the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 decision maker much \expnd-1\expndtw-3 help \expnd0\expndtw0 in \expnd-1\expndtw-4 determining when \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 person \expnd0\expndtw0 is \expnd-1\expndtw-4 disabled \expnd0\expndtw0 in \expnd-1\expndtw-3 such \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 way as \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 trigger \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 statute \expnd0\expndtw0 at \expnd-1\expndtw-3 all. This \expnd-1\expndtw-4 is \f5 precisely\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 one\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 concerns\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 about\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 guardianship\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 law,\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Tennessee \f5 statute \expnd-1\expndtw-3 does very little \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-3 meet\expnd1\expndtw3 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 it.\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri1\qj\sl271\slmult1\sb4\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Another\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 common\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislative\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 method\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 demonstrating\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 concern\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 for \f5 the autonomy of the individual for whom a guardian is sought is\expnd3\expndtw16 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1 \column \f5\fs21\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\ri109\qj\sl264\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 appointment of a guardian ad litem for purposes of representing the individual's best interests during the guardianship proceeding itself. Here, Tennessee begins with a rule-like pronouncement, but then \expnd0\expndtw-2 allows\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 so\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 many\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 exceptions,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 rule-like\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 at\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 all,\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 much\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 way \f5\f8 \'93\f5 no animals on the bus\f8 \'94 \f5 is not rule-like in the sense that it does not literally mean what it\expnd2\expndtw10 \expnd0\expndtw0 says.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb112\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 34-11-107 Guardian ad\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 litem\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb7\f5\fs22\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li689\fi-580\ri111\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 (a) (1) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, on the \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ling of\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 petition\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 appointment\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \f6\expnd0\expndtw0 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 duciary,\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 court\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 shall \f5 appoint a guardian ad litem to represent the respondent. The court also may appoint a guardian ad litem to represent the interest of the minor or disabled person in any proceeding brought by the \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 duciary. If the respondent is represented by an\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 adversary\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 counsel\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 who\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 made\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 an\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 appearance\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 re- \f5 spondent, no guardian ad litem shall be\expnd3\expndtw13 \expnd0\expndtw0 appointed.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls4\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li690\fi-310\ri111\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb1\tx691\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex120\cf2 The\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 court\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 may\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 waive\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 appointment\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 ad\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 litem \f5 if\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 petitioner\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 at\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 least\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 one\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 (1)\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 petitioners\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 the \f5 appointment\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 is:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls4\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li673\fi-324\qj\sl240\slmult1\tx674\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 A\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 parent\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 minor\expnd3\expndtw16 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd4\expndtw18 \expnd0\expndtw0 whom\expnd3\expndtw16 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd3\expndtw16 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian\expnd3\expndtw16 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd4\expndtw18 \expnd0\expndtw0 sought;\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls4\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li663\fi-314\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb25\tx664\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 A minor who has attained fourteen (14) years of age;\expnd3\expndtw13 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls4\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li663\fi-314\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb25\tx664\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 An adult\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 respondent.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls4\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li690\fi-310\ri111\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb24\tx691\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 The court may waive the appointment of a guardian ad\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 litem \f5 if the court determines such waiver is in the best interests of the minor or disabled\expnd2\expndtw11 \expnd0\expndtw0 person.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri112\qj\sl268\slmult1\sb81\f8\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 \'93\f5 Best interests of the minor or disabled person\f8 \'94 \f5 is the classic language for establishing a standard. It says very little about what in the real world meets this \expnd-1\expndtw-3 requirement, \expnd0\expndtw0 leaving it up to the decision \f5 maker's\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 discretion\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 based\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 unarticulated\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 criteria.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri111\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb4\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 In short, the Tennessee statute is an effective one when all of the parties involved are pretty much in consensus as to when a guardian is\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 appropriate\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 there\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 much\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 problem\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 overreaching.\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 But \f5 it\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 does\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 do\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 very\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 good\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 job\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 at\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 protecting\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 rights\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 autonomy\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 of \f5 elderly people with overzealous relatives trying to make their own lives easier or trying to protect their \expnd1\expndtw4 \expnd0\expndtw0 inheritance.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls7\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li402\fi-292\qj\sl240\slmult1\tx403\f4\fs16\b0\i1\charscalex110\cf2 Prototypes\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardianship\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 laws\i0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb5\f4\fs18\b0\i1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri112\qj\sl254\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex115\cf2 Prototype legislation \expnd-1\expndtw-3 uses \expnd-1\expndtw-4 languages \expnd-1\expndtw-3 such as \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \'93\f5 except for good \expnd-1\expndtw-5 cause \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 shown,\f8 \'94\expnd-8\expndtw-39 \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 or\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \'93\f5 unless\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 justice\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 demands.\f8 \'94\expnd-8\expndtw-40 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 It\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 is\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 more\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 restrictive\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 than\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 legislation \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 by \expnd-1\expndtw-4 standards, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 but \expnd-1\expndtw-4 permits \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 decision maker \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 discretion \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-5 deviate \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 from \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 norm when \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 situation demands \expnd-1\expndtw-3 it. \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Often, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 statute \expnd-1\expndtw-5 requires \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 a showing of \f8 \'93\f5 good cause\f8 \'94 \f5 to permit deviation from the prototype. Consider\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 following\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 example\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 Illinois:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\ri112\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb119\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 The court may appoint the public guardian as the guardian of\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 any \f5 disabled\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 adult\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 who\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 need\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 public\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 whose\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 estate \f5\charscalex110 exceeds\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 $25,000.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb7\f5\fs22\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\ri113\qj\sl264\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex115\cf2 The \expnd-1\expndtw-4 matter shall \expnd0\expndtw0 be \expnd-1\expndtw-3 set for \expnd-1\expndtw-4 hearing within \expnd0\expndtw0 10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 days \expnd-1\expndtw-4 unless \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 parties \f5 otherwise\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 agree\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 or\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 unless\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 good\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 cause\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 shown\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 court\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 determines \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 that additional time \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd6\expndtw32 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 required.\fs10\up7\cf3 20\expnd0\expndtw0\up0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb8\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri113\qj\sl271\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 This statute conveys the message that the hearing should be conducted within 10 days unless unusual circumstances\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 exist.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri112\qr\sl271\slmult1\sb2\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 No state legislates by prototype alone, but many\expnd4\expndtw19 \expnd0\expndtw0 have\expnd1\expndtw3 \expnd0\expndtw0 provisions\f5\charscalex111 \charscalex115 written\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 this\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 style.\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 Consider\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 following\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 provision\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 Georgia:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\ri112\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb107\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 The\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 court\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 may,\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 good\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 cause\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 shown,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 revoke\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 letters\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 guard- \f5 ianship of the public guardian, require additional security on the public guardian's bond, or issue any other order as is \expnd9\expndtw43 \expnd0\expndtw0 expedient\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols1\colno1\colw10610\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb8\f5\fs16\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li107\sl-20\f5\fs2
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\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li163\sl240\slmult1\sb39\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 17 \fs12\up0\cf3 W. Va. Code Section 44A-1-4\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par
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\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li163\sl240\slmult1\sb10\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex125\cf2 18\expnd4\expndtw18 \fs12\expnd0\expndtw0\up0\cf3 Tenn.\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 Code\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 Ann.\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 Section\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 34-11-101(7),\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 (10)\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li163\sl240\slmult1\sb10\tx5523\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 19 \fs12\up0\cf3 Tenn. Code Ann. Section\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 34-11-126\expnd0\expndtw1 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\tab \fs8\up6 20 \fs12\up0\cf3 755 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/13.5\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbkpage\marglsxn560\margrsxn740\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\sl240\slmult1\sb69\tx3160{\*\bkmkstart 4.4. Model-driven statutes}{\*\bkmkend 4.4. Model-driven statutes}\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 470\tab \f4\i1 L.M. Solan / International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 35 (2012)\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 464\f7\i0 \'96\f4\i1 472\i0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3\f4\fs14\b0\i1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn560\margrsxn740\cols2\colno1\colw5138\colsr222\colno2\colw5250\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri1\qj\sl254\slmult1\sb77\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 and necessary for the good of any particular guardianship in the hands of the public\expnd8\expndtw39 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian.\fs10\up7\cf3 21\up0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3\f5\fs17\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\qj\sl247\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 This statute contains a very loose standard: \f8 \'93\f5 as is expedient and necessary for the good of any particular guardianship in the hands of the public guardian.\f8 \'94 \f5 Thus, removing the public guardian is not the norm \f8 \'97 \f5 it is a \expnd0\expndtw-2 deviation \expnd0\expndtw0 from the prototype to take place only \f8 \'93\f5 for good cause \expnd-1\expndtw-3 shown.\f8 \'94 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 However, the circumstances in which good cause is met are left entirely to the\expnd6\expndtw32 \expnd0\expndtw0 judge.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\ri1\qj\sl249\slmult1\sb20\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Other language also establishes a prototype and the grounds for deviating\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 it.\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 Consider\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 following\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 provision\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 California \f5 Probate Code, which sets forth procedures to be followed, \f8 \'93\f5 unless otherwise ordered by the\expnd0\expndtw2 \expnd0\expndtw0 court.\f8 \'94\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri1\qj\sl268\slmult1\sb116\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex120\cf2 At\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 expiration\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 one\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 year\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 time\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 appointment\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 and \f5 thereafter not less frequently than biennially, unless otherwise \expnd-1\expndtw-4 ordered\expnd-7\expndtw-34 \expnd0\expndtw0 by\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 court\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 more\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 frequent,\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 guardian\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 conservator \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 shall\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 present\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 accounting\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 assets\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 estate\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 ward\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 or \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 conservatee\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 court\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 settlement\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 allowance\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 manner \f5 provided\expnd-7\expndtw-34 \expnd0\expndtw0 [by\expnd-7\expndtw-34 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 statute].\fs10\up7\cf3 22\expnd0\expndtw0\up0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\qj\sl259\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex110\cf2 Here, \expnd0\expndtw0 the law is \expnd-1\expndtw-3 more speci\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 c about \expnd0\expndtw0 how the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 parties should proceed\expnd8\expndtw38 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 in the event that \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the prototype \expnd0\expndtw0 is \expnd-1\expndtw-3 abandoned \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'97 \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 reports \expnd0\expndtw0 may be \expnd-1\expndtw-4 ordered \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 to be \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 led more frequently than \expnd0\expndtw0 the norm, but \expnd-1\expndtw-3 not less frequently than\expnd8\expndtw38 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd6\expndtw30 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 norm.\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb2\f5\fs19\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls7\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li407\fi-293\sl240\slmult1\tx408\f4\fs16\b0\i1\charscalex110\cf2 Model-driven\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 statutes\i0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f4\fs20\b0\i1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Enriched mental models constrain decision makers more than do broad standards but less than prototypes. Such statutes give them a good idea of what it is the legislature had in mind when it drafted the statute. But they do not pretend to decide all cases once and for all. The need for discretion at the margins is admitted in advance. Such\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 laws\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 may\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 contain\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 some\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 speci\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 c\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 rule-like\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 elements,\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 but\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 will\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 also \f5 contain examples of what the legislature has in mind, with \expnd4\expndtw19 \expnd0\expndtw0 phrases\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\sl-190\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 like,\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 including\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \expnd0\expndtw0 but\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \expnd0\expndtw0 limited\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 to\f8 \'85\f5 ,\f8 \'94\expnd-10\expndtw-52 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'93\f5 among\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \expnd0\expndtw0 other\expnd-7\expndtw-37 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 things.\f8 \'94\expnd-10\expndtw-52 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 Illustra-\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\sl240\slmult1\sb19\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 tive is the \expnd0\expndtw-2 following \expnd0\expndtw0 statute from\expnd6\expndtw32 \expnd0\expndtw0 Oklahoma:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs13\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\qj\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 After a hearing on the petition, the court\expnd2\expndtw11 \expnd0\expndtw0 may:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li789\fi-198\qj\sl295\slmult1\sb45\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 a. appoint a temporary guardian and order \expnd-1\expndtw-3 involuntary \expnd0\expndtw0 protec- \f5 tive services \expnd-1\expndtw-3 including, \expnd0\expndtw0 but not limited to, authorization for \f5 medical\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 and/or\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 psychological\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 treatment\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 evaluations,\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 and \f5 residential\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 placement\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 subject\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 provisions\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 subsection \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 G\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 this\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 section.\fs10\up7\cf3 23\up0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\qj\sl249\slmult1\sb85\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 The law does not specify all and only those services that should count as \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 protective,\f8 \'94 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 but neither does it leave the decision up to chance.\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 Rather,\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 by\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 providing\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 non-exclusive\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 list,\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 gives\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 decision \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 maker\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 sense\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 what\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislature\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 had\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 mind.\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 The\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 general\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 term\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'96 \'93\f5 included\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 but\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 limited\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd1\expndtw7 to\f8 \'94\'96\expnd-6\expndtw-32 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 then\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 construed\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 light\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 spe- \f5 ci\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 c\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 examples,\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw-2 described\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 earlier.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb18\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Consider\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 another\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 provision\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 Oklahoma\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardianship\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 law:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb11\f5\fs12\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\qj\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 Section 1-114. Powers of \expnd2\expndtw8 \expnd0\expndtw0 court\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls8\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\qj\sl297\slmult1\sb45\tx536\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 In\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 all\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 cases\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 court\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 making\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 appointment\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 has \f5 exclusive\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 jurisdiction\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 control\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 such\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 management \f5 and disposition of the person and property of the\expnd6\expndtw30 \expnd0\expndtw0 ward.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls8\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\qj\sl297\slmult1\sb3\tx544\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 The court has jurisdiction over guardianship proceedings, and has\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 following\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 powers,\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 which\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 must\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 exercised\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 manner \f5 prescribed by statute,\expnd3\expndtw15 \expnd0\expndtw0 to:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls8\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri1\qj\sl297\slmult1\sb2\tx526\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 appoint and remove guardians for minors and for\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 incapacitated \f5 and partially incapacitated\expnd1\expndtw6 \expnd0\expndtw0 persons;\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls8\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li528\fi-175\qj\sl240\slmult1\sb97\tx529\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 \column issue and revoke letters of\expnd1\expndtw3 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardianship;\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls8\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri108\qj\sl297\slmult1\sb46\tx545\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 control the conduct of guardians with regard to the care and treatment provided to their \expnd3\expndtw14 \expnd0\expndtw0 wards;\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls8\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri106\qj\sl297\slmult1\sb2\tx530\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-3\charscalex115\cf2 control \expnd0\expndtw0 the conduct of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardians with regard \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the management \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nancial resources \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 their wards, including \expnd0\expndtw0 but \expnd-1\expndtw-3 not limited \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 to the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 power\expnd2\expndtw8 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 to:\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls8\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri109\qj\sl297\slmult1\sb2\tx524\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 compel guardians to submit plans, reports, inventories and ac- countings to the\expnd1\expndtw7 \expnd0\expndtw0 court,\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls8\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri106\qj\sl297\slmult1\sb2\tx514\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 compel\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 payment\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 delivery\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 by\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardians\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 property\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 belonging \f5 to their\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 wards,\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls8\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri107\qj\sl300\slmult1\sb2\tx511\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 order the payment of debts, the sale of property, and order and regulate the distribution of property which has been placed\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 under \f5 the control or management of a guardian,\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls8\ilvl2\nooverflow\nocwrap\li531\fi-178\qj\sl-185\tx532\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 settle the accounts of\expnd5\expndtw24 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardians.\fs10\up7\cf3 24\up0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\ri107\qj\sl259\slmult1\sb129\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex115\cf2 Interestingly,\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 this\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 part\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 law\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 is\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 rule-like\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 its\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 structure.\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 It\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 contains \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 list\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 speci\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cally\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 delineated\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 powers\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 from\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 court,\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 which,\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 as\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 group, \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 appear \expnd0\expndtw0 to be \expnd-1\expndtw-4 fully inclusive. Nonetheless, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 one \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 those powers \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'96\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 su- \f5 pervision \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 guardian's control \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 ward's \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nances \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'96 \f5 is \expnd-1\expndtw-4 written \expnd0\expndtw0 as \f5 a\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 model,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 structured\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 as\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 non-exclusive\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 list\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 that\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 contains\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 many\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 examples, \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 guide\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 decision\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 maker\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 in\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 determining\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 kind\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 control\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 that\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 ap- \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 propriate \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 guardian \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 exercise.\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\ri107\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb10\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 This style of drafting constrains, but does not handcuff decision makers.\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 It\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 commonplace\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 lawyers,\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 Peter\expnd-2\expndtw-12 {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark1" }}{\fldrslt\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3 Tiersma\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2006)}}
\expnd0\expndtw0\cf3\expnd-3\expndtw-13\expnd0\expndtw0 \expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0\cf2 points \f5 out,\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 but\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 far\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 less\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 so\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislation\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 than\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 other\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 domains.\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 The\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 advantage \f5 of this approach is that it takes the pretense of scienti\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 c decision making\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 out\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 judicial\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 process\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 without\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 total\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislative\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 abdication \f5 through\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 resort\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 general\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 standards.\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 The\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 apparent\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 disadvantage\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 this \f5 approach\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 never\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 tries\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 create\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 rule\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 law\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 whose\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 applicability \f5 is clear from the beginning. How concerned one should be with this disadvantage will depend on how successful one can be with the other legislative styles in comparison to that\expnd6\expndtw31 \expnd0\expndtw0 one.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\ri108\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Let\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 us\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 now\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 look\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 at\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 another\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 statute\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 contains\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 some\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 model-driven \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 provisions.\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Florida's\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 good\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 example.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri107\qj\sl268\slmult1\sb80\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 744.102. De\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nitions\f8 \'93\f5 Incapacitated person\f8 \'94 \f5 means a person who has been judicially determined to lack the capacity to manage at least\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 some\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 property\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 meet\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 at\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 least\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 some\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 essential \f5 health and safety requirements of such\expnd3\expndtw14 \expnd0\expndtw0 person.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls9\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li593\fi-302\ri106\qj\sl268\slmult1\sb135\tx594\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 To\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'93\f5 manage\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 property\f8 \'94\expnd-6\expndtw-32 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 means\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 take\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 those\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 actions\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 necessary\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 to \f5 obtain, administer, and dispose of real and personal property, intangible property, business property, bene\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ts and\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 income.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls9\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li593\fi-312\sl-193\tx594\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 To\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'93\f5 meet\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 essential\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 requirements\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 health\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 safety\f8 \'94\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 means\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li593\ri107\qj\sl266\slmult1\sb20\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 take those actions necessary to provide the health care, food, shelter, clothing, personal hygiene, or other care without which serious and imminent physical injury or illness is more like than not to\expnd5\expndtw25 \expnd0\expndtw0 occur.\fs10\up7\cf3 25\up0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li593\ri107\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb4\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 This\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 statute\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 complex\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 its\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 style.\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 With\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 respect\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 property,\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 it \f5 is rule-like. Guardians to manage property are to be\expnd-6\expndtw-32 \expnd0\expndtw0 appointed \f5 only when an individual cannot do the things enumerated in the statute. With respect to personal care, the rule \expnd5\expndtw25 \expnd0\expndtw0 is written\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li593\qj\sl-189\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 as a model. It contains necessary conditions (\f8 \'93\f5 without \expnd2\expndtw11 \expnd0\expndtw0 which\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li593\ri106\qj\sl242\slmult1\sb20\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 serious and imminent physical injury or illness is more \expnd-1\expndtw-3 likely \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 than\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 occur\f8 \'94\f5 ),\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 non-exclusive\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 list\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 salient\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 examples \f5 of\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 care\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 (\f8 \'93\f5 health\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 care,\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 food,\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 shelter,\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 clothing,\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 personal\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 hygiene, \f5 or other care\f8 \'94\f5 ). As for members of the list, while they are not all \expnd-1\expndtw-3 enumerated, \expnd0\expndtw0 they must be \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 necessary\f8 \'94 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 to reduce the likeli- hood\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 physical\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 injury\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 illness.\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 The\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 result,\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 my\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 opinion,\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li593\ri107\qj\sl271\slmult1\sb24\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 sophisticated\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 piece\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislation\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 gives\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 decision\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 maker \f5 a\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 great\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 deal\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guidance,\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 but\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 leaves\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 open\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 very\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 real\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 possibility\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn560\margrsxn740\cols2\colno1\colw2952\colsr2408\colno2\colw5250\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs6\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li112\sl-20\f5\fs2
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\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li167\ri-17\sl240\slmult1\sb39\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 21 \fs12\up0\cf3 Ga. Code Ann. Section 29-10-9\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li167\ri-17\sl240\slmult1\sb10\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 22 \fs12\up0\cf3 Cal. Prob. Code Section 2620(a)\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li167\ri-17\sl240\slmult1\sb10\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 23 \fs12\up0\cf3 Okla. Stat. 43A Section 10-108(F)(1)\expnd1\expndtw5 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb10 \column \f5\fs20\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li112\sl-20\f5\fs2
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\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li167\ri50\sl240\slmult1\sb39\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 24 \fs12\up0\cf3 Okla. Stat. 30 Section 1-114\expnd1\expndtw5 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li167\ri50\sl240\slmult1\sb10\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 25 \fs12\up0\cf3 Fla. Stat. Section 744.102\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbkpage\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols1\colno1\colw10610\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li3155\sl240\slmult1\sb69\tqr\tx10490{\*\bkmkstart 5. Conclusion}{\*\bkmkend 5. Conclusion}\f4\fs12\b0\i1\charscalex115\cf2 L.M. Solan / International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 35\expnd6\expndtw32 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\expnd1\expndtw3 \expnd0\expndtw0 464\f7\i0 \'96\f4\i1 472\f1\i0 \tab \f5 471\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols2\colno1\colw5134\colsr225\colno2\colw5251\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs21\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li588\ri1\qj\sl271\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 that\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 he\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 she\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 will\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 have\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 make\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 decisions\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 concerning\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 novel\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 sit- \f5 uations.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li588\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb2\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 In contrast, the procedures called \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for \expnd0\expndtw0 under the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Florida \expnd0\expndtw0 statute \f5 are\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 very\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 rule-like.\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 They\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 require\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 notice\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 given\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 indi- \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 vidual, \expnd0\expndtw0 that the court make very speci\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 c \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ndings of fact, and many\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 other\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 such\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 things.\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 There\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 are\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 virtually\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 no\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 exceptions.\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 This \f5 approach\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 guided\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 discretion\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 comes\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 very\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 close\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 way\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 that \f5 we conceptualize in everyday life. In my opinion it strikes\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 the \f5 best\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 kind\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 balance\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 between\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 competing\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 goals\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardian- \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 ship\expnd-6\expndtw-32 \expnd0\expndtw0 law.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li588\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex115\cf2 Many \expnd-1\expndtw-5 guardianship statutes contain \expnd-1\expndtw-4 some \expnd-1\expndtw-5 model-driven language, \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 even \expnd0\expndtw0 if \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 entire statute cannot fairly \expnd0\expndtw0 be \expnd-1\expndtw-5 characterized \expnd-1\expndtw-3 as \expnd-1\expndtw-4 such. \f5 Below are \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 few \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 many \expnd-1\expndtw-5 available examples \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 this \expnd-1\expndtw-5 legislative \f5 style:\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\sl240\slmult1\sb80\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 Duties of guardian ad litem \expnd4\expndtw18 \expnd0\expndtw0 (Michigan).\f8 \'85\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb2\f8\fs17\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls9\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li588\fi-294\ri1\qj\sl271\slmult1\tx589\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Explaining to the individual the hearing procedure and the individual's rights in the hearing procedure, including, but\expnd9\expndtw46 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 not limited to, the right to contest the petition, to request \f5 limits\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian's\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 powers,\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 object\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 particular\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 person \f5 being appointed guardian, to be present at the hearing, to be \expnd-1\expndtw-4 represented\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 by\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 legal\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 counsel,\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 have\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 legal\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 counsel\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 appointed \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 for\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 individual\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 if\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 he\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 she\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 is\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 unable\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 afford\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 legal\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 counsel.\fs10\up7\cf3 26\expnd0\expndtw0\up0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs24\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 Eligibility as guardian (New\expnd5\expndtw24 \expnd0\expndtw0 York)\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f5\fs20\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls9\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri1\qj\sl268\slmult1\tx640\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 1. Any individual over eighteen years of age, or any parent under eighteen years of age, who is found by the court to be\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 suitable \f5 to exercise the powers necessary to assist the incapacitated person may be appointed as guardian, including but not limited to a\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 spouse, \f5 adult child, parent, or sibling.\fs10\up7\cf3 27\up0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Once\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 again,\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 this\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 style\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislation\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 most\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 often\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 integrated\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 into\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 a \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 statutory scheme that also contains rule-like \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and \expnd-1\expndtw-4 standard-like \expnd-1\expndtw-5 provi- \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 sions.\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 The\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 exibility\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 distributing\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 authority\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 courts\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 exercise\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 discre- \f5 tion, then, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 is \expnd-1\expndtw-4 both \f6 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 exible \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and \expnd-1\expndtw-4 subject \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 legislative control when the \f5 lawmakers\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 are\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 aware\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 these\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 potential\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 variations\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 legislative\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 style.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls7\ilvl1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li402\fi-292\sl240\slmult1\tx403{\*\bkmkstart 4.5. Combining drafting styles to achieve an integrated result}{\*\bkmkend 4.5. Combining drafting styles to achieve an integrated result}{\*\bkmkstart 4.5. Combining drafting styles to achieve an integrated result}{\*\bkmkend 4.5. Combining drafting styles to achieve an integrated result}\f4\fs16\b0\i1\charscalex110\cf2 Combining\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 drafting\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 styles\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 achieve\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 an\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 integrated\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 result\i0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f4\fs20\b0\i1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Finally,\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 let\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 us\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 see\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 what\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 happens\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 when\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 legislature\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 uses\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 several\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 of \f5 these drafting styles in the same law to achieve various amounts of control\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 guided\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 discretion.\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 In\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 this\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 regard,\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 South\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 Dakota\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 statute \f5 is rich with examples. \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Consider the following provision, \expnd0\expndtw0 which \expnd-1\expndtw-3 deals \f5 with\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 whether\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 when\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardian\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 must\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 post\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 bond.\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 This\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 law\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 contains \f5 all \expnd0\expndtw0 for \expnd-1\expndtw-3 styles \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 legislation: \expnd0\expndtw0 A \expnd-1\expndtw-3 rule, \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 prototype, \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 mental model \expnd0\expndtw0 and a \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 standard.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li349\qj\sl271\slmult1\sb80\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 Section 29A-5-111. Filing acceptance \f8 \'97 \f5 Necessity of bond[Rule] The appointment of a guardian or conservator does not become \expnd-1\expndtw-3 effective \expnd0\expndtw0 nor may letters of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardianship \expnd0\expndtw0 or conservatorship issue \f5 until the guardian or \expnd-1\expndtw-3 conservator \expnd0\expndtw0 has \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 led an acceptance of of\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ce and any \expnd-1\expndtw-3 required bond.[Prototype] \expnd0\expndtw0 The court may not require the \f5\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ling of a bond by a guardian except for good cause shown.[Mental Model] The court shall determine whether the \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ling of a bond by a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 conservator \expnd0\expndtw0 is necessary. In determining the necessity for or amount \f5 of a conservator's bond, the court shall\expnd6\expndtw28 \expnd0\expndtw0 consider:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb11\f5\fs14\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s3\ls10\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li588\fi-311\qj\sl273\slmult1\tx589\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 The value of the personal estate and annual gross income and other receipts within the conservator's\expnd8\expndtw40 \expnd0\expndtw0 control;\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls10\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li588\fi-311\ri1\qj\sl273\slmult1\tx589\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 The\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 extent\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 which\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 estate\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 has\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 been\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 deposited\expnd0\expndtw-2 \expnd0\expndtw0 under\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 an\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 ar- \f5 rangement requiring an order of court for its\expnd3\expndtw15 \expnd0\expndtw0 removal;\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls10\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li588\fi-311\sl240\slmult1\tx589\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex120\cf2 Whether\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 an\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 order\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 has\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 been\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 entered\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 waiving\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 requirement\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 that\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb7\f5\fs17\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li107\sl-20\f5\fs2
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\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li163\sl240\slmult1\sb39\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 26 \fs12\up0\cf3 Mich. Comp. Laws Section 700.5305\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1 \column \f5\fs21\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li588\ri50\sl271\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex115\cf2 accountings \expnd0\expndtw0 be \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 led and \expnd-1\expndtw-4 presented \expnd0\expndtw0 or \expnd-1\expndtw-4 permitting accountings \expnd0\expndtw0 to \f5 be \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 led \expnd-1\expndtw-3 less \expnd-1\expndtw-4 frequently than\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 annually;\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls10\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li588\fi-301\ri112\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb2\tx589\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex115\cf2 The extent \expnd0\expndtw0 to \expnd-1\expndtw-4 which \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 income \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and \expnd-1\expndtw-4 receipts \expnd-1\expndtw-3 are \expnd-1\expndtw-4 payable directly \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 to a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 facility responsible \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for or \expnd-1\expndtw-4 which \expnd-1\expndtw-3 has \expnd-1\expndtw-4 assumed responsibility \f5 for \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 care \expnd-1\expndtw-3 or \expnd-1\expndtw-4 custody \expnd-1\expndtw-3 of the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 minor \expnd0\expndtw0 or \expnd-1\expndtw-4 protected \expnd2\expndtw10 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 person;\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls10\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li588\fi-301\ri115\qj\sl273\slmult1\tx590\f5\fs16\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex115\cf2 Whether \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 guardian has \expnd-1\expndtw-3 been \expnd-1\expndtw-4 appointed, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and \expnd0\expndtw0 if \expnd-1\expndtw-3 so, \expnd-1\expndtw-4 whether the \f5 guardian \expnd-1\expndtw-3 has \expnd-1\expndtw-4 presented reports \expnd0\expndtw0 as \expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 required;\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls10\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li588\fi-301\ri112\qj\sl271\slmult1\sb1\tx589\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Whether the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 conservator \expnd0\expndtw0 was appointed \expnd-1\expndtw-3 pursuant \expnd0\expndtw0 to a nomina- \f5 tion\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 which\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 requested\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 bond\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 waived;\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s3\ls10\ilvl0\nooverflow\nocwrap\li588\fi-306\sl240\slmult1\sb2\tx589\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Any\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 other\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 factors\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 which\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 court\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 deems\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 appropriate.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb5\f5\fs19\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\ri110\qj\sl266\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 [Standard] Any required bond shall be with such surety and in such amount\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 form\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 court\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 may\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 order.\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 The\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 court\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 may\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 order\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 addition- \f5 al\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 bond\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 reduce\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 bond\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 whenever\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 considers\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 such\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 modi\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cation\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 in \f5 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 best\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 interests\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 minor,\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 protected\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 person,\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 estate.\fs10\up7\cf3 28\up0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb6\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri111\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 I do not mean to imply that all laws must be written to achieve these different degrees of \f6 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 exibility within the same statute. None- theless, this particular provision illustrates beautifully how much control a legislature has over the degree of discretion that it wishes to delegate to decision\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 makers.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb3\f5\fs18\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\qj\sl240\slmult1\f3\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 5. Conclusion\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f3\fs20\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri110\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Why\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 so\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 hard\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 write\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 good\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardianship\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 laws?\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 The\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 problem\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 is \f5 that we expect too much of them. Legislatures aware of this fact re- sort to drafting broad statutes whose standards are simply too low\expnd9\expndtw46 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 to reduce discretion suf\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ciently to guarantee protection of the rights of disabled individuals. On the other hand, the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 concern \expnd0\expndtw0 over the past \f5 several decades with a small but ugly series of abuses by guardians drive home the need for some kind of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 legislative \expnd0\expndtw0 control over the ap- \f5 pointment\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardians\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 adults.\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 In\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 this\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 article,\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 using\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 many\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 provisions \f5 from actual statutes as illustrations, I have provided a taxonomy for \expnd-1\expndtw-3 legislatures \expnd0\expndtw0 to use in drafting laws that grant more or less discretion, \f5 and\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 different\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 kinds\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 discretion,\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 decision\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 makers.\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 The\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 styles\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 include \f5 hard-and-fast rules, broad standards, prototype rules, and enriched mental\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 models.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri110\qj\sl256\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 As the illustrations used in this article suggest, different styles of \expnd-1\expndtw-4 legislation\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 tend\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 more\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 appropriate\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 different\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 aspects\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 guardian- \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 ship law. For \expnd-1\expndtw-4 example, deadlines \expnd-1\expndtw-3 tend \expnd0\expndtw0 to be \expnd-1\expndtw-4 written \expnd-1\expndtw-3 either \expnd0\expndtw0 as \expnd-1\expndtw-4 hard-and- \f5 fast \expnd-1\expndtw-3 rules, \expnd0\expndtw0 or as \expnd-1\expndtw-4 prototype rules, \expnd0\expndtw0 modi\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ed by such language as \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 unless \expnd0\expndtw0 justice\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \expnd0\expndtw0 demands\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 otherwise.\f8 \'94\expnd-9\expndtw-46 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 This\expnd-6\expndtw-32 \expnd0\expndtw0 kind\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 language\expnd-6\expndtw-32 \expnd0\expndtw0 gives\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 judges\expnd-7\expndtw-33 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-6\expndtw-32 \f6\expnd0\expndtw0 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 ex-\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\ri111\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb6\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 ibility to deviate from the norm in exceptional situations, while establishing norms that should be adhered to in most instances. The risks of sticking with a strict rule is that it will be \expnd-1\expndtw-3 inappropriate \expnd0\expndtw0 in \f5 some\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 cases,\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 injustice\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 will\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 done,\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 judge\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 will\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 simply\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 ig- \f5 nore\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 it\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 anyway\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 interests\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 justice,\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 diminishing\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 value\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 the \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 rule\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 law.\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 By\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 using\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 prototype,\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 judge\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 grants\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 this\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 desirable\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 exibility \expnd-1\expndtw-3 at\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 expense\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 reducing\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 predictability\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 adding\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 some\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 cost\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 de- \f5 cision making process. With these tradeoffs, \expnd0\expndtw0 it \expnd-1\expndtw-4 should \expnd-1\expndtw-3 not \expnd0\expndtw0 be \expnd-1\expndtw-4 surprising \f5 that \expnd0\expndtw0 we \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nd \expnd-1\expndtw-4 statutes \expnd0\expndtw0 in \expnd-1\expndtw-4 both legislative styles. What \expnd0\expndtw0 is \expnd-1\expndtw-4 most important \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 for our \expnd-1\expndtw-4 purposes, \expnd0\expndtw0 is \expnd-1\expndtw-4 that legislators \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and \expnd-1\expndtw-4 other policy makers become \f5 aware that these \expnd-1\expndtw-3 are \expnd-1\expndtw-4 actual choices, \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and \expnd-1\expndtw-4 that their underlying \expnd-1\expndtw-3 sets \expnd0\expndtw0 of \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 values\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 concerns\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 should\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 drive\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 which\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 style\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 use\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 particular\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 law.\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\fi239\ri111\qj\sl266\slmult1\sb1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 It\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 makes\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 little\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 sense,\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 however,\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 use\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 either\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 other\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 two\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 devices\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 in \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 most\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 instances\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 legislated\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 time\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 limits.\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Standards\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 allow\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 too\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 much\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 exi- bility.\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 A\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 reasonable\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 time\f8 \'94\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 or\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \'93\f5 as\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 much\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 time\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 as\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 reasonably\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 necessary\f8 \'94 \f5 would\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 very\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 dif\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cult\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 administer\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 could\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 lead\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 expensive\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 disputes \f5 about cases \expnd-1\expndtw-3 at the \expnd-1\expndtw-4 margins. Thus, standards \expnd-1\expndtw-3 are not \expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-4 good \expnd-1\expndtw-3 idea in \expnd-1\expndtw-4 these \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 instances,\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 are\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 not\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 generally\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 used.\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Similarly,\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 mental\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 models,\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 while \f5 giving decision makers a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 good \expnd0\expndtw0 idea of the circumstances in which\expnd9\expndtw44 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\charscalex100\cf1\par
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\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li110\ri112\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb5\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 deadline should be adhered to, seem useful only when that level of \f6\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 exibility\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 relevant.\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 In\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 most\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 cases\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 involving\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 time\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 limits,\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-5\expndtw-23 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 simply \f5 not the\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 case.\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn740\margrsxn560\cols1\colno1\colw10610\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li163\sl240\slmult1\sb10\tx5523\f5\fs8\b0\up6\charscalex120\cf2 27 \expnd0\expndtw1 \fs12\expnd0\expndtw0\up0\cf3 N.Y.\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 Mental\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 Hyg.\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 Law\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 Section\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 81.19\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\tab \fs8\up6 28 \expnd0\expndtw1 \fs12\expnd0\expndtw0\up0\cf3 S.D.\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 Codi\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ed\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 Laws\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 Section\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 29A-5-111\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012)\cf2 .\charscalex100\cf1\par\sect\sectd\sbkpage\marglsxn560\margrsxn740\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\sl240\slmult1\sb69\tx3160{\*\bkmkstart bookmark1}{\*\bkmkend bookmark1}\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 472\tab \f4\i1 L.M. Solan / International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 35 (2012)\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 464\f7\i0 \'96\f4\i1 472\i0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb2\f4\fs12\b0\i1\par\sect\sectd\sbknone\marglsxn560\margrsxn740\cols2\colno1\colw5139\colsr221\colno2\colw5250\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb102\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 The balance of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 considerations \expnd0\expndtw0 is quite different when it comes to \f5 such\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 matters\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 powers\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardians\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 might\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 granted.\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 A\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 standard \f5 might\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 specify\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardians\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 empowered\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 do\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 what\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 necessary\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 to \f5 ensure\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 adequate\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 protection\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 disable\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 person's\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 well-being.\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 Such\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 an \f5 approach\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 will\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 far\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 more\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 acceptable\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 culture\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd0\expndtw0 values\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 protection \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 over autonomy, and trusts in the \expnd0\expndtw-2 integrity \expnd0\expndtw0 of the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 individuals \expnd0\expndtw0 likely to \f5 take\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 task.\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 A\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 rule,\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 contrast,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 might\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 list\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 powers\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 judge \f5 may choose to assign to a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardian, \expnd0\expndtw0 thereby limiting the ways in \f5 which the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 individual's \expnd0\expndtw0 autonomy can be reduced. \expnd0\expndtw-2 Prototype \expnd0\expndtw0 rules\expnd6\expndtw30 \expnd0\expndtw0 are\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\sl-190\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 less\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 likely\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 here,\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 since\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 there\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 no\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 set\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \f8\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \'93\f5 ordinary\f8 \'94\expnd-8\expndtw-42 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 powers\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardians\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\qj\sl252\slmult1\sb19\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 must\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 have.\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 Mental\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 models,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 on\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 other\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 hand,\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 give\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 decision\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 makers\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 a \f5 sense\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 kinds\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 powers\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardian\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 might\expnd-5\expndtw-27 \expnd0\expndtw0 be\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 given,\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 without\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 limiting \f5 those\expnd-5\expndtw-26 \expnd0\expndtw0 powers\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 much\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 rule\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 would\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 do.\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \expnd0\expndtw0 Different\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 cultures\expnd-5\expndtw-24 \f8\expnd0\expndtw0 \'96\expnd-8\expndtw-40 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 both\expnd-5\expndtw-25 \expnd0\expndtw0 legal \f5 and social \f8 \'96 \f5 will be more or less comfortable with one of these ap- proaches,\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 with\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 different\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 combinations\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 them\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 ({\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK \\l "bookmark9" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 Carney,\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 2012}}
\cf3\expnd-3\expndtw-15\expnd0\expndtw0 \cf2 ).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\sb17\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 The\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 same\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 holds\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 true\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 determining\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 circumstances\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 under\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 which \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guardian should \expnd0\expndtw0 be \expnd-1\expndtw-3 appropriate. \expnd0\expndtw0 The \expnd-1\expndtw-3 more rule-like \expnd0\expndtw0 the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 law, \expnd0\expndtw0 the less \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-3 discretion delegated \expnd0\expndtw0 to the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 decision maker. \expnd0\expndtw0 The \expnd-1\expndtw-3 more standard-like, \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 more \f6 \uc1\u64258 ?\f5 exibility, \expnd0\expndtw0 but at the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 expense \expnd0\expndtw0 of \expnd-1\expndtw-3 increased opportunity for \f5 abuse.\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Here,\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 mental\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 models\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 can\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 serve\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-4\expndtw-19 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 very\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 important\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 function,\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 guiding \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 decision\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 maker\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 while\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 allowing\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 individual\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 circumstances\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 play \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 an \expnd-1\expndtw-3 appropriate role \expnd0\expndtw0 as\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 well.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Thus, I do not advocate for any one style. Guardianship is not a \expnd-1\expndtw-3 one-size-\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ts-all\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 endeavor.\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 Nor,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 matter,\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 do\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 I\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 take\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 strong\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 posi- \f5 tion on where the balance between the \expnd-1\expndtw-3 protection \expnd0\expndtw0 of an individual's \f5 right\expnd-4\expndtw-18 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 autonomy\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 protection\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-16 \expnd0\expndtw0 that\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd0\expndtw0 same\expnd-3\expndtw-17 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 individual's\expnd-3\expndtw-15 \expnd0\expndtw0 physical \f5 and\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \f6\expnd0\expndtw0 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 nancial\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 well-being\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 should\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 lie.\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 This\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 most\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 important\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 issue\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 both \f5\expnd-1\expndtw-4 subtle\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 at\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 margins,\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 and\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 highly\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 culture-dependent.\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 I\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 do\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 hope,\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 however, \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 to have provided a legislative tool box that will assist in creating a \f5 conscious awareness of the possibilities for reaching an appropriate balance in any jurisdiction confronting the issue of the best way to protect society's most vulnerable adult \expnd0\expndtw2 \expnd0\expndtw0 population.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb2\f5\fs16\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\sl240\slmult1{\*\bkmkstart Acknowledgments}{\*\bkmkend Acknowledgments}{\*\bkmkstart bookmark2}{\*\bkmkend bookmark2}\f3\fs16\b0\charscalex120\cf2 Acknowledgments\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f3\fs20\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\fi239\qj\sl273\slmult1{\*\bkmkstart bookmark3}{\*\bkmkend bookmark3}{\*\bkmkstart bookmark4}{\*\bkmkend bookmark4}\f5\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 My\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 thanks\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Elliott\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 Siebers\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 his\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 valuable\expnd-6\expndtw-30 \expnd0\expndtw0 assistance\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-6\expndtw-31 \expnd0\expndtw0 conducting \f5 research\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 for\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 this\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 article.\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 I\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 also\expnd-4\expndtw-20 \expnd0\expndtw0 wish\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 to\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 thank\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 an\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 anonymous\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 reviewer\expnd-4\expndtw-22 \expnd0\expndtw0 for \f5 very helpful comments on an earlier draft that has led to signi\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cant \expnd-1\expndtw-3 improvements\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 published\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 article.\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 The\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 research\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 was\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw-2 supported\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 in \f5 part\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 by\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 a\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 Dean's\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 Summer\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 Research\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 Stipend\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd0\expndtw0 from\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 Brooklyn\expnd-6\expndtw-29 \expnd0\expndtw0 Law\expnd-6\expndtw-28 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 School.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs16\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\sl240\slmult1{\*\bkmkstart References}{\*\bkmkend References}{\*\bkmkstart bookmark5}{\*\bkmkend bookmark5}\f3\fs16\b0\charscalex115\cf2 References\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb11\f3\fs14\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\qj\sl264\slmult1\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 American Bar Association Commission on Law and Aging, State Adult Guardianship {\*\bkmkstart bookmark6}{\*\bkmkend bookmark6}Legislation: Directions of Reform \f8 \'97 \f5 2011 (2011). Available at. {\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK "http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/uncategorized/2011/2011_aging_gship_legis_update_12_28_11.authcheckdam.pdf" }}{\fldrslt\cf3 http://www.}}
\cf3 \f5{\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK "http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/uncategorized/2011/2011_aging_gship_legis_update_12_28_11.authcheckdam.pdf" }}{\fldrslt americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/uncategorized/2011/2011_aging_gship_legis_}}
\f5{\*\bkmkstart bookmark7}{\*\bkmkend bookmark7}{\field {\fldinst { HYPERLINK "http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/uncategorized/2011/2011_aging_gship_legis_update_12_28_11.authcheckdam.pdf" }}{\fldrslt update_12_28_11.authcheckdam.pdf\charscalex100\cf1}}
\charscalex100\cf1 \par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\ri1\qj\sl276\slmult1\sb8\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Aristotle, \f4\i1 Nachomachean Ethics\f5\i0 , (4th edition, F.H. Peters Translation 1891). London: {\*\bkmkstart bookmark8}{\*\bkmkend bookmark8}Kegan\expnd0\expndtw1 \expnd0\expndtw0 Paul.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\qj\sl247\slmult1\sb2\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex110\cf2 Armstrong, S. L., Gleitman, L. R., & Gleitman, H. (1983). What some concepts might not \expnd7\expndtw33 \f5\expnd0\expndtw0 be. \f4\i1 Cognition\f5\i0 , \f4\i1 13\f5\i0 ,\expnd1\expndtw7 \expnd0\expndtw0 263\f8 \'96\f5 308.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\ri1\qj\sl261\slmult1\sb12{\*\bkmkstart bookmark9}{\*\bkmkend bookmark9}\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Barnes, A. P. (1992). Beyond guardianship reform: A reevaluation of autonomy and be- ne\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 cence for a system of principled decision-making in long term care. \f4\i1 Emory Law Journal\f5\i0 , \f4\i1 41\f5\i0 ,\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 633\f8 \'96\f5 760.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\qj\sl-146{\*\bkmkstart bookmark10}{\*\bkmkend bookmark10}\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Carney, T. (2012). Guardianship, \f8 \'91\f5 social\f8 \'92 \f5 citizenship, & theorizing substitute\expnd5\expndtw26 \expnd0\expndtw0 decision\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\sl244\slmult1\sb18\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 making law. In I. Doron, & A. M. Soden (Eds.), \f4\i1 Beyond elder law: New directions in law and ageing \f5\i0 (pp. 1\f8 \'96\f5 18). Berlin: \expnd3\expndtw14 \expnd0\expndtw0 Springer-Verlag.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\ri1\qj\sl244\slmult1\sb15\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex110\cf2 Connolly, A. C., Fodor, J. A., Gleitman, L. R., & Gleitman, H. (2007). Why stereotypes {\*\bkmkstart bookmark11}{\*\bkmkend bookmark11}don't even make good defaults. \f4\i1 Cognition\f5\i0 , \f4\i1 103\f5\i0 , \expnd1\expndtw5 \expnd0\expndtw0 1\f8 \'96\f5 22.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\ri1\qj\sl244\slmult1\sb15\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex110\cf2 Fodor, J. A., & Lepore, E. (1996). The red herring and the pet \f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 sh: Why concepts still can't be prototypes. \f4\i1 Cognition\f5\i0 , \f4\i1 58\f5\i0 , \expnd5\expndtw27 \expnd0\expndtw0 253\f8 \'96\f5 270.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\sl240\slmult1\sb15\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex120\cf2 Frolik,\expnd3\expndtw13 \expnd0\expndtw0 L.\expnd3\expndtw14 \expnd0\expndtw0 A.\expnd3\expndtw13 \expnd0\expndtw0 (1998).\expnd3\expndtw14 \expnd0\expndtw0 Guardianship\expnd3\expndtw14 \expnd0\expndtw0 reform:\expnd3\expndtw14 \expnd0\expndtw0 When\expnd3\expndtw13 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd3\expndtw14 \expnd0\expndtw0 best\expnd3\expndtw14 \expnd0\expndtw0 is\expnd3\expndtw13 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd3\expndtw14 \expnd0\expndtw0 enemy\expnd3\expndtw13 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd3\expndtw14 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd3\expndtw13 \expnd0\expndtw0 good.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f4\fs12\b0\i1\charscalex115\cf2 Stanford Law & Policy Review\f5\i0 , \f4\i1 9\f5\i0 ,\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 347\f8 \'96\f5 355.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\ri108\qj\sl261\slmult1\sb89\charscalex110 \column \f5\fs12\b0\cf2 Grant, E. H., & Quinn, M. J. (1998). Guardianship and abuse of dependent adults. In G. H. Zimny, & G. T. Grossberg (Eds.), \f4\i1 Guardianship of the elderly: Psychiatric and judicial aspects \f5\i0 (pp. 102\f8 \'96\f5 114). New York: Springer Publishing \expnd1\expndtw7 \expnd0\expndtw0 Co.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\ri106\qj\sl261\slmult1\sb4\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex120\cf2 Grif\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 th, D. B. (1991). 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Trends in guardianship reform: Implications for the medical and legal professions. \f4\i1 Law, Medicine & Health Care\f5\i0 , \f4\i1 18\f5\i0 ,\expnd4\expndtw19 \expnd0\expndtw0 213\f8 \'96\f5 226.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\ri60\sl244\slmult1\sb4\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Hurme, S. B. (1995). Current trends in guardianship reform, Maryland. \f4\i1 Journal of Contemporary Law Issues\f5\i0 , \f4\i1 7\f5\i0 , \expnd1\expndtw5 \expnd0\expndtw0 143\f8 \'96\f5 189.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\ri107\qj\sl261\slmult1\sb15\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Johns, A. F. (1999). Ten years after: Where is the constitutional crisis with procedural safeguards and due process in guardianship adjudication? \f4\i1 Elder Law Journal\f5\i0 , \f4\i1 7\f5\i0 , 33\f8 \'96\f5 152.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\ri108\qr\sl261\slmult1\sb4\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Johnson-Laird,\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 P.\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 N.\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 (1983).\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \f4\i1\expnd0\expndtw0 Mental\expnd-1\expndtw-4 \expnd0\expndtw0 models.\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \f5\i0\expnd0\expndtw0 Cambridge,\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 Mass.:\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 Harvard\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 University\expnd-1\expndtw-3 \expnd0\expndtw0 Press.\f5\charscalex97 \charscalex115 Kapp,\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 M.\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 B.\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 (1998).\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 Legal\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 basis\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 guardianship.\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 In\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 G.\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 H.\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 Zimny,\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 &\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 G.\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 T.\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 Grossberg\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 (Eds.),\f5\charscalex116 \f4\i1\charscalex115 Guardianship of the elderly: Psychiatric and judicial aspects \f5\i0 (pp. 16\f8 \'96\f5 24). New\expnd7\expndtw33 \expnd0\expndtw0 York:\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Springer Publishing\expnd6\expndtw29 \expnd0\expndtw0 Co.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb20\f5\fs12\b0\expnd-1\expndtw-4\charscalex115\cf2 Karp,\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 N.,\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 &\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Wood,\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 E.\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 (2007).\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \f4\i1\expnd-1\expndtw-4 Guarding\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 the\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 guardians:\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 Promising\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 practices\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-3 for\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 court\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd-1\expndtw-4 monitoring.\i0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb22\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 : \expnd-1\expndtw-4 AARP Public Policy\expnd1\expndtw6 \expnd-1\expndtw-5 Institute.\expnd0\expndtw0\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb20\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Korobkin,\expnd4\expndtw20 \expnd0\expndtw0 R.\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2000).\expnd4\expndtw20 \expnd0\expndtw0 Behavioral\expnd4\expndtw19 \expnd0\expndtw0 analysis\expnd4\expndtw20 \expnd0\expndtw0 and\expnd4\expndtw19 \expnd0\expndtw0 legal\expnd4\expndtw19 \expnd0\expndtw0 form:\expnd4\expndtw19 \expnd0\expndtw0 Rules\expnd4\expndtw20 \expnd0\expndtw0 vs.\expnd3\expndtw17 \expnd0\expndtw0 standards\expnd4\expndtw19 \expnd0\expndtw0 revisited.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb4\f4\fs12\b0\i1\charscalex115\cf2 Oregon Law Review\f5\i0 , \f4\i1 79\f5\i0 ,\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 23\f8 \'96\f5 59.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\ri60\sl247\slmult1\sb16\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Medin, D. L. (1989). Concepts and conceptual structure. \f4\i1 American Psychologist\f5\i0 , \f4\i1 44\f5\i0 , 1469\f8 \'96\f5 1481.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri249\sl276\slmult1\sb13\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex110\cf2 Murphy, G. L. (2004). \f4\i1 The big book of concepts. \f5\i0 Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Posner, R. A. (2008). \f4\i1 How judges think. \f5\i0 Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University \expnd3\expndtw16 \expnd0\expndtw0 Press.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\ri60\sl244\slmult1\sb2\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex110\cf2 Priest, G. L., & Klein, B. (1984). The selection of disputes for litigation. \f4\i1 Journal of Legal Studies\f5\i0 , \f4\i1 13\f5\i0 ,\expnd3\expndtw13 \expnd0\expndtw0 1\f8 \'96\f5 55.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\ri60\sl278\slmult1\sb15\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex110\cf2 Prinz, J. J. 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Finding incompetency in guardianship: Standardizing the process. \f4\i1 Arizona Law Review\f5\i0 , \f4\i1 35\f5\i0 ,\expnd-4\expndtw-21 \expnd0\expndtw0 739\f8 \'96\f5 764.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\ri60\sl276\slmult1\sb15\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Winter,\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 S.\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 L.\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 (1999).\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \f4\i1\expnd0\expndtw0 A\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 clearing\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 in\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 the\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 forest:\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 Life,\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 law,\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 mind.\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \f5\i0\expnd0\expndtw0 Chicago:\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 University\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 of\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 Chicago \f5 Press.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li353\fi-240\ri60\sl278\slmult1\sb2\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Wittgenstein,\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 L.\expnd-3\expndtw-14 \expnd0\expndtw0 (1953).\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \f4\i1\expnd0\expndtw0 Philosophical\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 investigations.\expnd2\expndtw11 \f5\i0\expnd0\expndtw0 (G.E.M.\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 Anscombe,\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 trans.\expnd-2\expndtw-12 \expnd0\expndtw0 3rd\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 edition \f5 2001). Oxford: Blackwell\expnd-3\expndtw-13 \expnd0\expndtw0 Publishing.\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs12\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb10\f5\fs9\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\f3\fs16\b0\charscalex110\cf2 Cases\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb11\f3\fs14\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Connor v. Powell, 744 A.2d 1158 (N.J. \expnd3\expndtw16 \expnd0\expndtw0 2000).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri1286\sl276\slmult1\sb22\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Hall Street Assocs., \charscalex110 LLC \charscalex115 v. Mattel, Inc., 552 \charscalex110 U.S. \charscalex115 5766, 586 (2008). \f5 In the Interest of \charscalex110 G.C., \charscalex115 846 A.2d 1222 (N.J. \expnd1\expndtw6 \expnd0\expndtw0 2004).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb2\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 McBoyle v. United States, 283 U.S. 25 \expnd4\expndtw19 \expnd0\expndtw0 (1931).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb9\f5\fs16\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\f3\fs16\b0\charscalex120\cf2 Statutes\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\sl240\slmult1\sb11\f3\fs14\b0\i0\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 755 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/13.5 \expnd6\expndtw32 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri2710\sl276\slmult1\sb22\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Cal. Prob. Code Section 2620(a) (2012). Fla. Stat. Section 744.102 \expnd6\expndtw30 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb2\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 Ga. Code Ann. Section 29-10-9 \expnd1\expndtw4 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb22\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex120\cf2 Mich.\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 Comp.\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 Laws\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 Section\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 700.5305\expnd-2\expndtw-8 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb20\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 National Motor Vehicle Theft Act of 1919, 18 U.S.C. Section 408 \expnd2\expndtw12 \expnd0\expndtw0 (1931).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb22\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 N.J. Stat. Ann. Section 2C:39-1 \expnd1\expndtw4 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb20\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 N.J. Stat. Ann. Section 2C:39-1(r) \expnd6\expndtw31 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb22\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 N.M. Stat. Ann. Section 38-4-14 (2012).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb22\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex120\cf2 N.M.\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 Stat.\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 Ann.\expnd-1\expndtw-6 \expnd0\expndtw0 Section\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 45-5-101(F-H)\expnd-1\expndtw-7 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri2504\sl276\slmult1\sb20\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex120\cf2 N.Y.\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 Mental\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 Hyg.\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 Law\expnd-2\expndtw-10 \expnd0\expndtw0 Section\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 81.19\expnd-2\expndtw-9 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012). \f5 Okla. Stat. 43A Section 10-108(F)(1) (2012). Okla. Stat. 30 Section 1-114\expnd-1\expndtw-5 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb2\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 S.D. Codi\f6 \uc1\u64257 ?\f5 ed Laws Section 29A-5-111 \expnd2\expndtw12 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb20\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex120\cf2 Tenn. Code Ann. Section 34-11-101(7), (10)\expnd4\expndtw21 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb22\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex120\cf2 Tenn. Code Ann. Section 34-11-126\expnd-2\expndtw-11 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012).\charscalex100\cf1\par\pard\plain\s1\nooverflow\nocwrap\li114\ri60\sl240\slmult1\sb22\f5\fs12\b0\charscalex115\cf2 W. Va. Code Section 44A-1-4 \expnd3\expndtw13 \expnd0\expndtw0 (2012).\charscalex100\cf1\par}